Bad weather also played an important part in the disaster; 1315–16 and 1318 saw torrential rains and an incredibly cold winter, which in combination badly impacted on harvests and stored supplies. To conclude, this section presented the economic approaches for the study of the Medieval economy, as well as the various economic activities that took place in the port towns of the Peloponnese, and how they were affected by the political–territorial changes in the wider Eastern Mediterranean and the Peloponnese itself. ‘Charity and Gild Solidarity in Late Medieval England’, The Journal of British Studies, 32 (1993), 224. (2003), Fletcher, Anthony and Diarmaid MacCulloch. (2008). Fryde, Natalie, Pierre Monnet and Oto Oexle. entry to top London attractions.  These guilds were fraternities of craftsmen that set out to manage their local affairs including "prices, workmanship, the welfare of its workers, and the suppression of interlopers and sharp practices". In England, inns were primarily found in towns and cities and most of them very quickly became landmarks of the settlement they were in.  Indeed, the disruption to both the Baltic and the Gascon trade contributed to a sharp reduction in the consumption of furs and wine by the English gentry and nobility during the 15th century.  Many hundreds of new towns, some of them planned, sprung up across England, supporting the creation of guilds, charter fairs and other important medieval institutions.  By the turn of the 16th century, the available alluvial tin deposits in Cornwall and Devon had begun to decline, leading to the commencement of bell and surface mining to support the tin boom that had occurred in the late 15th century.  Similar issues underpinned the Peasants Revolt of 1381 and later tax rebellions. Bailey, Mark. Medieval* Europe was overwhelmingly rural, and its economy depended almost entirely on agriculture. British Population History: From the Black Death to the Present Day, Money, Markets and Trade in Late Medieval Europe: Essays in Honour of John H. A. Munro, London in the Later Middle Ages: Government and People 1200–1500, English Medieval Industries: Craftsmen, Techniques, Products, De Re Metallica: The Uses of Metal in the Middle Ages, Anglo-Norman Studies XI: Proceedings of the Battle Conference 1988, Monastic and Religious Orders in Britain, 1000–1300, Bridges, Law and Power in Medieval England, 700–1400, Making a Living in the Middle Ages: The People of Britain, 850 – 1520, The Fifteenth Century 2: Revolution and Consumption in Late Medieval England, The Great Famine: Northern Europe in the Early Fourteenth Century, Medieval Merchants: York, Beverley and Hull in the Later Middle Ages, A Short Historical Introduction to the Law of Real Property, Archaeology, History and Science: Integrating Approaches to Ancient Materials, The Agrarian History of England and Wales, Volume III: 1348–1500.  At the same time, wealthy magnate consumers in England began to use the new fairs as a way to buy goods like spices, wax, preserved fish and foreign cloth in bulk from the international merchants at the fairs, again bypassing the usual London merchants.  England exported almost no cloth at all in 1347, but by 1400 around 40,000 cloths[nb 3] a year were being exported – the trade reached its first peak in 1447 when exports reached 60,000.  Disease, independent of the famine, was also high during the period, striking at the wealthier as well as the poorer classes. , The Normans also established the royal forests. Initially, livestock and land were rented out together under "stock and lease" contracts, but this was found to be increasingly impractical and contracts for farms became centred purely on land. A great number of medieval banking activities and their centers of operations were established in Italy.  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