2.  Another plant, sometimes referred to as fall dandelion, is very similar to dandelion, but produces "yellow fields" later. Anatomy of regenerating root segments of Taraxacum officinale Web. Taraxacum officinale Fragaria indica Androsace rotundifolia. , While the dandelion is considered a weed by most gardeners and especially lawn owners, the plant has several culinary uses. 2: 798. The plants are adaptable to most soils and the seeds are not dependent on cold temperatures before they will germinate but they need to be within the top 2.5 cm (1 in) of soil.. , The taxonomy of the genus Taraxacum is complicated by apomictic and polyploid lineages, and the taxonomy and nomenclatural situation of Taraxacum officinale is not yet fully resolved. Plants typically have 24 or 40 pairs of chromosomes, while some have 16 or 32 pairs. Taraxacum officinale L. (dandelion) is a vigorous weed in Europe with diploid sexual populations in the southern regions and partially overlapping populations of diploid sexuals and triploid or tetraploid apomicts in the central and northern regions. along with discussion & documentation of Indian Flora. – J. Phytogeogr. Common dandelion, Dandelion, Red seeded dandelion Taraxacum officinale, a dicot, is a perennial herb that is not ... Search efloras.org (Flora of North America) Photos on PlantID.net / Google Images. Stems 1–10+, erect or ascending, sometimes ± purplish (usually equaling or surpassing leaves), glabrous or sparsely villous, slightly more so distally. The foliage may be upright-growing or horizontally spreading; the leaves have petioles that are either unwinged or narrowly winged. Dandelion salad is often accompanied with hard-boiled eggs. Dandelion is a source of various nutrients and biologically active substances and its root and leaves contain vitamins (A, K, C and B-complex), minerals (calcium, magnesium, potassium, zinc and iron), micronutrients, fibre, lecithin and choline. The two taxa are easily distinguished in fruit, the red cypselae of T. erythrospermum standing out from the dull olive ones of T. officinale. Add an Observation. The rationale for herbalists’ choice of diuretic therapy for a woman with hypertension and edema is understandable. Dandelion or Taraxacum officinale is a well-known medicinal plant that grows naturally in Europe, North and South America and Asia. Involucres green to dark green or brownish green, tips dark gray or purplish, campanulate, 14–25 mm. , T. officinale has a fossil record that goes back to glacial and interglacial times in Europe. Raw leaves have a slightly bitter taste. This group consists of dandelions that have a diploid set of chromosomes, and are sexually self-incompatible. (1998) found that taraxalisin hydrolyzes a chromogenic peptide substrate Glp-Ala-Ala-Leu-pNA optimally at pH 8.0. Ground roasted dandelion root can be used as a non-caffeinated coffee substitute. – Wentia 10. Aarbok 1923-1924(6): 29. It is also the species most commonly used for medicinal and culinary purposes (e.g., E. Small and P. M. Catling 1999). California county polygons can be turned off and on in the layer control box. The first group reproduces sexually, as do most seed plants. Dandelion is on the FDA's list of safe foods and is approved by the Council of Europe. Florets 40–100+; corollas yellow (orange-yellow), 15–22 × 1.7–2 mm (outer). Taraxacum officinale F. H. Wigg. The common dandelion is well known for its yellow flower heads that turn into round balls of silver-tufted fruits that disperse in the wind. Calyculi of 12–18, reflexed, sometimes ± glaucous, lanceolate bractlets in 2 series, 6–12 × 2.8–3.5 mm, margins very narrowly white-scarious, sometimes villous-ciliate distally, apices acuminate, hornless. The stems can be glabrous or sparsely covered with short hairs. , Dandelions are harvested from the wild or grown on a small scale as a leaf vegetable.  The taxonomy of this genus has been complicated by the recognition of numerous species, subspecies and microspecies. Its blooms resemble some of the species of Sonchus, but are larger. 1922. Dandelion and burdock is a soft drink that has long been popular in the United Kingdom.  It is now naturalized throughout North America, southern Africa, South America, New Zealand, Australia, and India. Taraxacum officinale is a PERENNIAL growing to 0.5 m (1ft 8in) by 0.3 m (1ft) at a fast rate. , Yellow dye colors can be obtained from the flowers but little color can be obtained from the roots of the plant.  The flowers are used to make dandelion wine, the greens are used in salads, the roots have been used to make a coffee substitute (when baked and ground into powder) and the plant was used by Native Americans as a food and medicine. In contrast to the sexual diploids, the pairing of chromosomes at metaphase I in triploid apomicts is strongly reduced. It may be found in combination with nervines and uterine tonics. The florets number 40 to over 100 per head, having corollas that are yellow or orange-yellow in color. The leaves are high in beta-carotene, vitamin C and iron. Specimens of Taraxacum officinale with deeply lobed leaves are sometimes difficult to distinguish from those of T. erythrospermum when fruits are missing (see also R. J. Taylor 1987). Annotated Checklist of the Flowering Plants of NepalFlora of MissouriFlora of Taiwan Checklist A study conducted in 2009 noted 'promising' results regarding these diuretic properties, but that further studies would need to be conducted into the plant's efficacy.  The common name dandelion comes from the French dent de lion, or "lion's tooth", in reference to the plant's jagged-edged leaves. Taxonomic notes: The name T. officinale is the earliest applied to the section Taraxacum, which comprises an aggregate of numerous microspecies in Europe; it is not known from which of these the Australian populations have been derived. "The Names of Plants". It has been used as a tonic, to treat rheumatic problems, and as a blood purifier. Taraxacum pannucium Taraxacum pannucium Dahlstedt, Bergens Mus. The lanceolate shaped bractlets are in two series, with the apices acuminate in shape. Taraxacum officinale has diuretic and laxative properties. Pakistan Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research, 12:310-311.  The name "blowball" has also been used.. The family Asteraceae, best represented by the species of Taraxacum officinale, is known world wide for its manifold uses.It is widely used to cure kidney disease, swelling, skin problems, heart burn, eye inflammation, bone fractures, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, gastrointestinal complaints, warts, liver/gallbladder problems, hepatitis B, cancer, etc., and widely used in modern medicine. , Dandelion has been used in traditional medicine in Europe, North America, and China. It occurs in all 50 states of the US and most Canadian provinces. , The dandelion is a common colonizer of disturbed habitats, both from wind blown seeds and seed germination from the seed bank. These European dandelions can be divided into two groups. Landolt 1977: 3272 = Taraxacum officinale aggr. The latter in particular are poorly understood at present. Corresponding Author. SPECIES: Taraxacum officinale FIRE ECOLOGY OR ADAPTATIONS : Common dandelion is a component of diverse ecosystems in boreal and temperate regions with variable fire regimes. Khan MI, 1973. Gledhill, David (2008). The Taraxacum flora of the British Isles. Treatments in Other Floras @ www.efloras.org , Species of flowering plant in the daisy family Asteraceae, Dandelion flower (left) and ripe fruits (right), 1897 illustration from Franz Eugen Köhler, Köhler's Medizinal-Pflanzen. See also List of Lepidoptera that feed on dandelions. Taraxacum officinale, the common dandelion (often simply called " dandelion "), is a flowering herbaceous perennial plant of the family Asteraceae (Compositae). | Alaska Natural Heritage Program", "The biology of Canadian weeds. 1753; Taraxacum officinale var. Flora Helvetica 2018: 2295 = Taraxacum officinale aggr. SEARS, P. B. Leaves 20+, horizontal to erect; petioles ± narrowly winged; blades oblanceolate, oblong, or obovate (often runcinate), (4–)5–45 × (0.7–)1–10 cm, bases attenuate to narrowly cuneate, margins usually shallowly to deeply lobed to lacerate or toothed, lobes retrorse, broadly to narrowly triangular to nearly lanceolate, acute to long-acuminate, terminals ± as large as distal laterals, ultimate margins toothed or entire (secondary lobules irregular, perpendicular to retrorse), teeth minute to pronounced apices acute to acuminate or obtuse, faces glabrous or sparsely villous (commonly on midveins). FNA Vol.  Honey bees have not been shown to lower their pollination activity on nearby fruit crops when foraging on dandelions. They are probably closest in character to mustard greens. Often damp low places, lawns, roadsides, waste grounds, disturbed banks and shores; 0–2000+ m; introduced; Greenland; St. Pierre and Miquelon; Alta., B.C., Man., N.B., Nfld. Assessment report on Taraxacum officinale Weber ex Wigg., radix cum herba . ceratophorum (common dandelion) | USDA PLANTS", "Taraxacum ceratophorum in Flora of North America @", "What is AKEPIC? Watsonia, Suppl. The calyculi (the cuplike bracts that hold the florets) are composed of 12 to 18 segments: each segment is reflexed and sometimes glaucous.  It is also an important weed in agriculture and causes significant economic damage because of its infestation in many crops worldwide. It is a familiar weed of lawns and roadsides. Usually the young leaves and unopened buds are eaten raw in salads, while older leaves are cooked. , Taraxacum officinale has many English common names (some of which are no longer in use), including blowball, lion's-tooth, cankerwort, milk-witch, yellow-gowan, Irish daisy, monks-head, priest's-crown and puff-ball; other common names include, faceclock, pee-a-bed, wet-a-bed, swine's snout, white endive, and wild endive. This species is a somewhat prolific seed producer, with 54 to 172 seeds produced per head, and a single plant can produce more than 5,000 seeds a year. 1962. Brief Description Amanda Spooner, Wednesday 18 June 1997. The fruits have 4 to 12 ribs that have sharp edges. 3. Dandelion flowers can be used to make dandelion wine, for which there are many recipes.  Most of these are more accurately described as "dandelion-flavored wine," as some other sort of fermented juice or extract serves as the main ingredient. Pakistan Journal of Botany, 5:71-77. Consortium of California Herbaria 2. Blanched hearts (obtained by earthing up or tying the leaves together) are also eaten. Flora Helvetica 2012: 2295 = Taraxacum officinale aggr. Pl. A note on the periodicity of leaf-form in Taraxacum officinale Wigg. 117. Flora Helvetica 2001: 2294 = Taraxacum officinale aggr. ... Taraxacum species from India, Pakistan and neighbouring countries. It is estimated that more than 97,000,000 seeds/hectare could be produced yearly by a dense stand of dandelions.  It may be related to the Greek word ταρασσω (tarasso) meaning to disturb. T. officinale is food for the caterpillars of several Lepidoptera (butterflies and moths), such as the tortrix moth Celypha rufana. The silky pappi, which form the parachutes, are white to silver-white in color and around 6 mm wide. In many lineages, fruits are mostly produced by apomixis, notwithstanding the flowers are visited by many types of insects. The leaf margins are typically shallowly lobed to deeply lobed and often lacerate or toothed with sharp or dull teeth.. Tax. Taraxacum officinale grows from generally unbranched taproots and produces one to more than ten stems that are typically 5–40 cm (2.0–15.7 in) tall, but sometimes up to 70 cm (28 in) tall. 55: 29-32. T. officinale is considered a weed, especially in lawns and along roadsides, but it is sometimes used as a medical herb and in food preparation. It grows in temperate regions of the world, in lawns, on roadsides, on disturbed banks and shores of waterways, and other areas with moist soils.  It has also been used in a saison ale called Pissenlit (the French word for dandelion, literally meaning "wet the bed") made by Brasserie Fantôme in Belgium. , T. officinale can serve as an indicator plant for soil potassium and calcium, as the plant favours soils deficient in the latter but rich in the former. [verification needed], The Latin specific epithet officinale refers to the Latin word for 'medicinal' or 'of the apothecaries'. The species is hermaphrodite (has both male and female organs) and is pollinated by Insects, Apomictic (reproduce by seeds formed without sexual fusion). Taraxacum officinale, the common dandelion (often simply called "dandelion"), is a flowering herbaceous perennial plant of the family Asteraceae (Compositae). The seeds are also a common contaminant in crop and forage seeds. Specimens not closely corresponding to the descriptions given here can only be identified to the appropriate section. The fruits, called cypselae, range in color from olive-green or olive-brown to straw-colored to grayish, they are oblanceoloid in shape and 2–3 mm (0.079–0.118 in) long with slender beaks. Ume Ummara, Tasveer Zahra Bokhari, Adeela Altaf, Uzma Younis, Altaf Ahmed Dasti . The yellow flower heads lack receptacle bracts and all the flowers, which are called florets, are ligulate and bisexual. Based on Article 16d(1), Article 16f and Article 16h of Directive 2001/83/EC as amended (traditional use) Final . 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