The first group reproduces sexually, as do most seed plants. The effect of medicinal plants of Islamabad and Murree region of Pakistan on insulin secretion from INS‐1 cells. The foliage may be upright-growing or horizontally spreading; the leaves have petioles that are either unwinged or narrowly winged. , While not in bloom, this species is sometimes confused with others, such as Chondrilla juncea, that have similar basal rosettes of foliage. Tax. Palynology of Family Asteraceae from Flora of Rawalpindi-Pakistan MUHAMMAD ZAFAR, MUSHTAQ AHMAD AND MIR AJAB KHAN1 ... Hand-Mazz and Taraxacum officinale … The plants are adaptable to most soils and the seeds are not dependent on cold temperatures before they will germinate but they need to be within the top 2.5 cm (1 in) of soil.. Calyculi of 12–18, reflexed, sometimes ± glaucous, lanceolate bractlets in 2 series, 6–12 × 2.8–3.5 mm, margins very narrowly white-scarious, sometimes villous-ciliate distally, apices acuminate, hornless. Anatomy of regenerating root segments of Taraxacum officinale Web. The …  The taxonomy of this genus has been complicated by the recognition of numerous species, subspecies and microspecies. , Taraxalisin is a serine proteinase found in the latex of dandelion roots. Young leaves and inflorescences are used as ingredients in salads and stir-fries. Taxonomic notes: The name T. officinale is the earliest applied to the section Taraxacum, which comprises an aggregate of numerous microspecies in Europe; it is not known from which of these the Australian populations have been derived. It occurs in all 50 states of the US and most Canadian provinces. T. officinale is considered a weed, especially in lawns and along roadsides, but it is sometimes used as a medical herb and in food preparation. The Taraxacum flora of the British Isles. , Taraxacum officinale is native to Europe and Asia, and was originally imported to America as a food crop. Taraxacum officinale has diuretic and laxative properties.  The name "blowball" has also been used.. Dandelion or Taraxacum officinale is a well-known medicinal plant that grows naturally in Europe, North and South America and Asia.  Rudenskaya et al. Plants have milky latex and the leaves are all basal; each flowering stem lacks bracts and has one single flower head. 23. Properties. , Dandelions are harvested from the wild or grown on a small scale as a leaf vegetable. They are probably closest in character to mustard greens. Dandelion salad is often accompanied with hard-boiled eggs. 3. Corresponding Author. Taraxacum officinale is the most widespread dandelion in temperate North America, though its abundance decreases in the arid south. Cambridge University Press. Cypselae olivaceous or olive-brown, or straw-colored to grayish, bodies oblanceoloid, (2–)2.5–2.8(–4) mm, cones shortly terete, 0.5–0.9 mm, beaks slender, 7–9 mm, ribs 4–12, sharp, faces proximally smooth to ± tuberculate, muricate in distal 1/3; pappi white to sordid, 5–6(–8) mm. Gledhill, David (2008). Gibbons, E. Stalking the Wild Asparagus. ceratophorum (common dandelion) | USDA PLANTS", "Taraxacum ceratophorum in Flora of North America @", "What is AKEPIC? 2: 798. Phenotypic and genotypic variation of this species have been studied in North America (L. M. King 1993; King and B. [in Japanese with an English abstract] Soest J. L. van 1963: Taraxacum species from India, Pakistan and neighbouring countries. The rationale for herbalists’ choice of diuretic therapy for a woman with hypertension and edema is understandable. Common dandelion is primarily adapted to fire through its prolific production of wind-dispersed seed [ 123 ]. Flora, Pakistan. Regeneration in relation to root size in Taraxacum officinale. Provides authoritative information on the flora of Western Australia.  It is now naturalized throughout North America, southern Africa, South America, New Zealand, Australia, and India. Index synonymique 1996: 413100 = Taraxacum officinale aggr. California county polygons can be turned off and on in the layer control box. Taraxacum sect.  The seeds remain viable in the seed bank for many years, with one study showing germination after nine years. 1962. SEARS, P. B. Landolt 1977: 3272 = Taraxacum officinale aggr. A. Schaal 1990; J. C. Lyman and N. C. Ellstrand 1998; O. T. Solbrig 1971; R. J. Taylor 1987), but results of those studies did not lead to the recognition of microspecies.  It is also an important weed in agriculture and causes significant economic damage because of its infestation in many crops worldwide. Khan MI, 1973. Dandelion (Taraxacum officinale; Compositae-Lactuceae) is a group of highly invasive wild plants with worldwide distribution.Taraxacum species dominate in towns, along roadsides, shores of conduits and in many other rural sites. Dandelion (Taraxacum officinale), leaf or root, is the most common herb recommended for this purpose. officinale (Lyons) Douin, 1923 Taraxacum officinale Weber, 1780 Specimens not closely corresponding to the descriptions given here can only be identified to the appropriate section. Zakir Hussain. Brief Description Amanda Spooner, Wednesday 18 June 1997. Taraxacum officinale, the common dandelion (often simply called "dandelion"), is a flowering herbaceous perennial plant of the family Asteraceae (Compositae). Taraxacum officinale L. (dandelion) is a vigorous weed in Europe with diploid sexual populations in the southern regions and partially overlapping populations of diploid sexuals and triploid or tetraploid apomicts in the central and northern regions. This group consists of dandelions that have a diploid set of chromosomes, and are sexually self-incompatible.  The flowers are used to make dandelion wine, the greens are used in salads, the roots have been used to make a coffee substitute (when baked and ground into powder) and the plant was used by Native Americans as a food and medicine. Another recipe using the plant is dandelion flower jam. In many lineages, fruits are mostly produced by apomixis, notwithstanding the flowers are visited by many types of insects. It may be found in combination with nervines and uterine tonics. T. officinale is food for the caterpillars of several Lepidoptera (butterflies and moths), such as the tortrix moth Celypha rufana. The typification by A. J. Richards (1985) would leave the common dandelion of both Europe and North America without a valid name (J. Kirschner and J. Štepánek 1987). In northeastern North America, Taraxacum officinale and T. lapponicum often are confused, which has led to reports of the common dandelion farther north than I have been able to verify (it has yet to be collected from the Nunavik region of Quebec, for instance). 2. Involucres green to dark green or brownish green, tips dark gray or purplish, campanulate, 14–25 mm. The characters in the key above help separate the two taxa. The specific name officinalis refers to its value as a medicinal herb, and is derived from the word opificina, later officina, meaning a workshop or pharmacy. | Alaska Natural Heritage Program", "The biology of Canadian weeds. Based on Article 16d(1), Article 16f and Article 16h of Directive 2001/83/EC as amended (traditional use) Final . Other Databases Shogran ValleyIJSER. Flora Helvetica 2012: 2295 = Taraxacum officinale aggr. 1922. Annotated Checklist of the Flowering Plants of NepalFlora of MissouriFlora of Taiwan Checklist Ground roasted dandelion root can be used as a non-caffeinated coffee substitute. Palynology of Family Asteraceae from Flora of Rawalpindi Pakistan. In Silesia and other parts of Poland and the world, dandelion flowers are used to make a honey substitute syrup with added lemon (so-called May-honey). , T. officinale's diuretic properties have been well described, with the leaves of this plant having been used for this purpose in traditional Chinese medicine for approximately 2,000 years, with other regions of the world using the plant in the same way; in French, a common name for T. officinale is pissenlit, 'a colorful description of its diuretic activity.' Leontodon taraxacum Linnaeus, Sp. Grierson & Springate within 'Flora of Bhutan' Vol 2 Part 3 (2001) observed, "Taraxacum in our area consists of sexually producing and apomictic taxa. Rosetted perennial, herb, 0.05-0.25 m high. Flora Helvetica 2001: 2294 = Taraxacum officinale aggr. Ume Ummara, Tasveer Zahra Bokhari, Adeela Altaf, Uzma Younis, Altaf Ahmed Dasti . , T. officinale can serve as an indicator plant for soil potassium and calcium, as the plant favours soils deficient in the latter but rich in the former. It is in flower from April to May, and the seeds ripen from May to June.  Wigg", "Taraxacum campylodes G.E.Haglund — The Plant List", "Definition of "blowball" - Collins English Dictionary", "dandelion clock - Definition from Longman English Dictionary Online", "Clock dictionary definition - clock defined", "Competition for pollinators and intra-communal spectral dissimilarity of flowers", "Taraxacum officinale in Flora of North America @", "Ecological and evolutionary opportunities of apomixis: insights from, Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B, "ITIS Standard Report Page: Taraxacum officinale", "PLANTS Profile for Taraxacum officinale ssp. Landolt 1991: 2615 = Taraxacum officinale aggr. Assessment report on Taraxacum officinale Weber ex Wigg., radix cum herba . FNA Vol. These European dandelions can be divided into two groups. .  Honey bees have not been shown to lower their pollination activity on nearby fruit crops when foraging on dandelions. and Labr., N.W.T., N.S., Nunavut, Ont., P.E.I., Que., Sask., Yukon; Ala., Alaska, Ariz., Ark., Calif., Colo., Conn., Del., D.C., Fla., Ga., Idaho, Ill., Ind., Iowa, Kans., Ky., La., Maine, Md., Mass., Mich., Minn., Miss., Mo., Mont., Nebr., Nev., N.H., N.J., N.Mex., N.Y., N.C., N.Dak., Ohio, Okla., Oreg., Pa., R.I., S.C., S.Dak., Tenn., Tex., Utah, Vt., Va., Wash., W.Va., Wis., Wyo. "The Names of Plants". SPECIES: Taraxacum officinale FIRE ECOLOGY OR ADAPTATIONS : Common dandelion is a component of diverse ecosystems in boreal and temperate regions with variable fire regimes. 19, 20 and 21 Page 7, 239, 240, 241, 242, 243. 55: 29-32. It is estimated that more than 97,000,000 seeds/hectare could be produced yearly by a dense stand of dandelions.  It is considered a noxious weed in some jurisdictions, and is considered to be a nuisance in residential and recreational lawns in North America. For the time being, with the nomenclatural situation still not resolved, I am following traditional usage of the name Taraxacum officinale. Serizawa S. 2007: Taraxacum maruyamanum (Asteraceae) is a distinct species. – J. Phytogeogr. Taraxacum pannucium Taraxacum pannucium Dahlstedt, Bergens Mus. Taraxacum officinale Fragaria indica Androsace rotundifolia. You can change the display of the base map and layers by clicking on the layer control box in the upper right-hand corner. , Species of flowering plant in the daisy family Asteraceae, Dandelion flower (left) and ripe fruits (right), 1897 illustration from Franz Eugen Köhler, Köhler's Medizinal-Pflanzen. We allowed Lehmannia valentiana, a European slug naturalized in … The family Asteraceae, best represented by the species of Taraxacum officinale, is known world wide for its manifold uses.It is widely used to cure kidney disease, swelling, skin problems, heart burn, eye inflammation, bone fractures, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, gastrointestinal complaints, warts, liver/gallbladder problems, hepatitis B, cancer, etc., and widely used in modern medicine. The seeds are also a common contaminant in crop and forage seeds. Pakistan Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research, 12:310-311. Florets 40–100+; corollas yellow (orange-yellow), 15–22 × 1.7–2 mm (outer). 117. Flora Helvetica 2012: 2295 = Taraxacum officinale aggr. The leaves (called dandelion greens) can be eaten cooked or raw in various forms, such as in soup or salad. The lanceolate shaped bractlets are in two series, with the apices acuminate in shape. 1753; Taraxacum officinale var. palustre Blytt; T. sylvanicum R. Doll. It grows in temperate regions of the world, in lawns, on roadsides, on disturbed banks and shores of waterways, and other areas with moist soils. It is also the species most commonly used for medicinal and culinary purposes (e.g., E. Small and P. M. Catling 1999). , The taxonomy of the genus Taraxacum is complicated by apomictic and polyploid lineages, and the taxonomy and nomenclatural situation of Taraxacum officinale is not yet fully resolved. W3TROPICOS Here, we show that the recurved phyllaries of an agamospermous hybrid dandelion, Taraxacum japonicum × officinale, function as a physical barrier to slug florivory. A note on the periodicity of leaf-form in Taraxacum officinale Wigg. Usually, however, early leaves of the former are much less deeply lobed than those of the latter, which are more consistently lacerate throughout development, though broadly winged initially.  Maximal activity of the proteinase in the roots is attained in April, at the beginning of plant development after the winter period. The fruits, called cypselae, range in color from olive-green or olive-brown to straw-colored to grayish, they are oblanceoloid in shape and 2–3 mm (0.079–0.118 in) long with slender beaks. The florets number 40 to over 100 per head, having corollas that are yellow or orange-yellow in color. Taraxacum officinale Weber ex F. H. Wiggers 1780; Leontodon taraxacum Linnaeus 1753. The species is hermaphrodite (has both male and female organs) and is pollinated by Insects, Apomictic (reproduce by seeds formed without sexual fusion). Phyllaries 13–18 in 2 series, lanceolate, 2–2.8 mm wide, margins scarious (proximal 2/3) to narrowly scarious, apices acuminate, erose-scarious, usually hornless (seldom appendaged), callous. List of Lepidoptera that feed on dandelions, "Tropicos - Name - !Taraxacum officinale F.H. Landolt 1991: 2615 = Taraxacum officinale aggr. 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