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For example, historical records suggest the tantric Kapalikas (literally, the 'skull-men') co-existed with and shared many Vajrayana Buddhist rituals, engaged in esoteric practices that revered Shiva and Shakti wearing skulls, begged with empty skulls, used meat, alcohol, and sexuality as a part of ritual. The figure of Shiva as we know him today may be an amalgamation of various older deities into a single figure. save. [340][341], The ascetic, Vedic and Tantric sub-traditions related to Shiva, such as those that became ascetic warriors during the Islamic rule period of India,[342][343] celebrate the Kumbha Mela festival. It attempts at assimilation of the all the Brahmanical deities at one go, by establishing Avalokiteshvara as the progenitor of those deities. For discussion of the linkages between Soma, Moon, and Rudra, and citation to RV 7.74, see: Chakravarti, pp. For the 2012 film, see. [306], The worship of the lingam originated from the famous hymn in the Atharva-Veda Samhitâ sung in praise of the Yupa-Stambha, the sacrificial post. [4] Some communities organize special dance events, to mark Shiva as the lord of dance, with individual and group performances. Thence I spread forth across all worlds, and yonder heaven with its height I touch. [81] The term Shiva also appears in the Rigveda, but simply as an epithet, that means "kind, auspicious", one of the adjectives used to describe many different Vedic deities. It was only in the eighteenth century that the term Hindu … This short volume, perhaps a long pamphlet or tract, explores the experiential Buddha as the drilling of the ever busy mind, and Shiva as the awakening of the unconscious body. [191], The Trimurti is a concept in Hinduism in which the cosmic functions of creation, maintenance, and destruction are personified by the forms of Brahma the creator, Vishnu the maintainer or preserver and Shiva the destroyer or transformer. etc Then in Sutra about 12 Devas we find about Shiva is ancient Buddha. J.L. (Pañcabrahma Upanishad 31)[318], Puranic scriptures contain occasional references to "ansh" – literally 'portion, or avatars of Shiva', but the idea of Shiva avatars is not universally accepted in Saivism. [34][35], Shiva is known by many names such as Viswanatha (lord of the universe), Mahadeva, Mahandeo,[36] Mahasu,[37] Mahesha, Maheshvara, Shankara, Shambhu, Rudra, Hara, Trilochana, Devendra (chief of the gods), Neelakanta, Subhankara, Trilokinatha (lord of the three realms),[38][39][40] and Ghrneshwar (lord of compassion). James Lochtefeld (2002), "Shiva" in The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Hinduism, Vol. Shiva (/ˈʃivə/; Sanskrit: Śiva, lit. [310] One of his most important mantras has five syllables (namaḥ śivāya). The Vaishnava (Vishnu-oriented) literature acknowledges and discusses Shiva. The swastika literally means, It is good orall is well. 'the auspicious one'), also known as Mahadeva (lit. [83], The similarities between the iconography and theologies of Shiva with Greek and European deities have led to proposals for an Indo-European link for Shiva,[84][85] or lateral exchanges with ancient central Asian cultures. Antonio Rigopoulos (2013), Brill's Encyclopedia of Hinduism, Volume 5, Brill Academic. [332][333] The ardent devotees keep awake all night. He is the Lord of Yogis, and the teacher of Yoga to sages. However, in texts and artwork of either tradition, the mutual salutes are symbolism for complementarity. [80], The Vedic literature refers to a minor atmospheric deity, with fearsome powers called Rudra. [291] Elements of this motif can include Shiva seated upon a deer-throne and surrounded by sages who are receiving his instruction. [260] When depicted as a yogi, he may be shown sitting and meditating. As Shiva was considered as a emanation of Avalokiteshvara, many of Shiva's features were also attributed to Avalokiteshvara, again an attempt to subsume Shiva under Buddhism. [178] Shiva is one of the five deities, others being Vishnu, Devi (such as Parvati), Surya and Ganesha or Skanda or any personal god of devotee's preference (Ishta Devata). info), lit. For quotation "An important factor in the process of Rudra's growth is his identification with Agni in the Vedic literature and this identification contributed much to the transformation of his character as, For "Note Agni-Rudra concept fused" in epithets. Through me he eats food—whoever sees, whoever breathes, whoever hears what is spoken. [12][13], Shiva is known as "The Destroyer" within the Trimurti, the Hindu trinity that includes Brahma and Vishnu. According to Richard Blurton, the ancient works show that the Bodhisattva of Compassion in Buddhism has many features in common with Shiva in Shaivism. 4. These ideas are estimated to be from or after the late centuries of the 1st millennium CE, and have survived as Yoga texts such as the Isvara Gita (literally, 'Shiva's song'), which Andrew Nicholson – a professor of Hinduism and Indian Intellectual History – states have had "a profound and lasting influence on the development of Hinduism". [307] However, this part is not that much widely known. [79] Gregory L. Possehl in 2002, associated it with the water buffalo, and concluded that while it would be appropriate to recognize the figure as a deity, and its posture as one of ritual discipline, regarding it as a proto-Shiva would "go too far". kīdṛśaścāvalokiteśvarasya bodhisattvasya mahāsattvasyopāyakauśalyaviṣayaḥ? [334] According to Jones and Ryan, Maha Sivaratri is an ancient Hindu festival which probably originated around the 5th-century. Shaivism was also popular in Sogdia and the Kingdom of Yutian as found from the wall painting from Penjikent on the river Zervashan. Chidbhavananda, "Siva Sahasranama Stotram". 'the great god'),[9][10][11] is one of the principal deities of Hinduism. After emanation of Shiva from his Body, Avalokiteshvara tells Mahesvara that, during the kaliyuga, he will appear in a degenerate realm and will be called the primordial god (ādideva), the creator and author of the world. [314][315] Doctrinal differences and, possibly, errors in transmission, have resulted in some differences between texts in details of how these five forms are linked with various attributes. [89][90] The ancient Greek texts of the time of Alexander the Great call Shiva as "Indian Dionysus", or alternatively call Dionysus as "god of the Orient". For translation of Tryambakam as "having three mother eyes" and as an epithet of Rudra, see: Kramrisch, p. 483. At the same time, Buddhism had also attempted in assimilation of the Brahmanical Deities into its fold. Sati, avatar of Adishakti, married Shiva, who was hated by her father, European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Sanskrit to English Dictionary with Etymology, "Vṛṣabhavāhanamūrti in Literature and Art", A Dionysian Scheme on a Seal from Gupta India, Dionysus and Siva: Parallel Patterns in Two Pairs of Myths, "Rig Veda: Rig-Veda, Book 6: HYMN XLVIII. [335], Thiruvathira is a festival observed in Kerala dedicated to Shiva. For quotation regarding Yajur Veda as containing contrary sets of attributes, and marking point for emergence of all basic elements of later sect forms, see: For summary of Shiva's contrasting depictions in the Mahabharata, see: For the contrast between ascetic and householder depictions, see: Flood (1996), pp. I, just like the wind, blow forth, grasping at all worlds, Swami Chinmayananda's translation of Vishnu sahasranama, p. 24, Central Chinmaya Mission Trust. [72] Semi-circular shapes on the head were interpreted as two horns. Without thinking about it, they live on me. Sri Vishnu Sahasranama, Ramakrishna Math edition, pg.47 and pg. It can be considered that, at this time the Buddhists had begun to consider Shiva as an emanation of Avalokiteshvara. attains the highest Brahman, [356] He is clad in tiger skin while his attendants are wearing Sogdian dress. Theravada Buddhism. The Buddha describes that Avalokiteshvara by his Skillful means takes numerous forms like that of a Pratyekabuddha, Shravaka, Brahma, Yaksha, Gandharva including Shiva to teach the Dharma to the Sentient Beings. Again, that requires a detailed study on its own. [299] According to Monier Williams and Yudit Greenberg, linga literally means 'mark, sign or emblem', and also refers to a "mark or sign from which the existence of something else can be reliably inferred". "[102] The interconnections between the two deities are complex, and according to Stella Kramrisch: The fire myth of Rudra-Śiva plays on the whole gamut of fire, valuing all its potentialities and phases, from conflagration to illumination. [119] The earliest iconic artworks of Shiva may be from Gandhara and northwest parts of ancient India. However, post-Vedic texts such as the Mahabharata and the Puranas state the Nandi bull, the Indian zebu, in particular, as the vehicle of Rudra and of Shiva, thereby unmistakably linking them as same.[98]. "Whom I love, just him I make formidable, him a formulator, him a seer, [74][125] Prior to it, the Upanishadic literature is monistic, and the Shvetashvatara text presents the earliest seeds of theistic devotion to Rudra-Shiva. Sadhguru answers, it is not a question of difference, rather, of which aspect of Shiva that Buddha explored. Shiva personifies beauty, serenity, spirituality and stability. For regional name variants of Karttikeya see: Gupta. For discussion of these five forms and a table summarizing the associations of these five mantras see: Kramrisch, pp. The adjective śiva, meaning "auspicious", is used as an attributive epithet not particularly of Rudra, but of several other Vedic deities. In that hymn, a description is found of the beginningless and endless Stambha or Skambha, and it is shown that the said Skambha is put in place of the eternal Brahman. For alternate stories about this feature, and use of the name. The two names are used synonymously. [94], The oldest surviving text of Hinduism is the Rig Veda, which is dated to between 1700 and 1100 BC based on linguistic and philological evidence. [295], Apart from anthropomorphic images of Shiva, he is also represented in aniconic form of a lingam. Please forgive me if this is a foolish question. For description of the nataraja form see: Jansen, pp. JS Vasugupta (2012), Śiva Sūtras, Motilal Banarsidass. In fact, not specifically Shiva but the attributes of the dual deity Hari-Hara or Shankara-Narayana seems to have been overlaid on Avalokiteshvara. God Shiva is the apex source of all spiritualism which a devotee can achieve in many ways. [33], The Vishnu sahasranama interprets Shiva to have multiple meanings: "The Pure One", and "the One who is not affected by three Guṇas of Prakṛti (Sattva, Rajas, and Tamas)". Besides Buddhism, Saivism was also popular in Yunan as is manifest from the prevalence of the cult of Mahakala there. [299] In Shaivism pilgrimage tradition, twelve major temples of Shiva are called Jyotirlinga, which means "linga of light", and these are located across India. For translation "Having the moon as his crest" see: Kramrisch, p. 472. Even Buddha himself was assimilated to the Brahmanical Pantheon as one of the Avatar-s of Vishnu. [365], Popular films include the Gujarati language movie Har Har Mahadev,[366] the Kannada movie Gange Gowri and well-known books include Amish Tripathi's Shiva Trilogy, which has sold over a million copies. [344], In Shaivism of Indonesia, the popular name for Shiva has been Batara Guru, which is derived from Sanskrit Bhattaraka which means "noble lord". her as his wife. Me have the gods distributed in many places—so that I have many stations and cause many things to enter (me). I stretch the bow for Rudra, for his arrow to smash the hater of the ... Buddhism embraces the concept of rebirth, also commonly known as reincarnation, as a fundamental principle that governs our world. [69][70][71], Sir John Marshall and others suggested that this figure is a prototype of Shiva, with three faces, seated in a "yoga posture" with the knees out and feet joined. In Shaivism tradition, Shiva is the "creator, destroyer and regenerator". As a proper name it means "The Auspicious One", used as a name for Rudra. [331] It is observed by reciting Shiva-related poems, chanting prayers, remembering Shiva, fasting, doing Yoga and meditating on ethics and virtues such as self-restraint, honesty, noninjury to others, forgiveness, introspection, self-repentance and the discovery of Shiva. In Dasam Granth, Guru Gobind Singh has mentioned two avtars of Rudra: Dattatreya Avtar and Parasnath Avtar. [300][301] Some scholars, such as Wendy Doniger, view linga merely as an erotic phallic symbol,[302] although this interpretation is criticized by others, including Swami Vivekananda,[303] Sivananda Saraswati,[304] and S. N. Others visit one of the Shiva temples or go on pilgrimage to Jyotirlingam shrines. Mark Dyczkowski (1989), The Canon of the Śaivāgama, Motilal Banarsidass. Rudra, the god of the roaring storm, is usually portrayed in accordance with the element he represents as a fierce, destructive deity. It was also believed that Shiva himself will attain Buddhatva (i.e Buddhahood) in the future as Bhasmeshvara Buddha. Karandavyuha Sutra. For the moon on the forehead see: Chakravarti, p. 109. EO James (1997), The Tree of Life, BRILL Academic. 7. Shiva was initially considered as an Emanation of Avalokiteshvara. 23, 32, 150. [15][16] This partner is Shiva. McEvilley, for example, states that it is not possible to "account for this posture outside the yogic account". [273] In some traditions, Shiva has daughters like the serpent-goddess Manasa and Ashokasundari. [350] The Indonesian Hindu texts present the same philosophical diversity of Shaivism traditions found on the subcontinent. [189], Other famed Shiva-related texts influenced Hatha Yoga, integrated monistic (Advaita Vedanta) ideas with Yoga philosophy and inspired the theoretical development of Indian classical dance. [150] In contrast, the esoteric tradition within Kashmir Shaivism has featured the Krama and Trika sub-traditions. For Shiva as depicted with a third eye, and mention of the story of the destruction of Kama with it, see: Flood (1996), p. 151. [49] Shiva also has Dasha-Sahasranamas (10,000 names) that are found in the Mahanyasa. [264] Umā in epic literature is known by many names, including the benign Pārvatī. [336] On this day Hindu women performs the Thiruvathirakali accompanied by Thiruvathira paattu (folk songs about Parvati and her longing and penance for Lord Shiva's affection). He is conceptualized as a kind spiritual teacher, the first of all Gurusin Indonesian Hindu texts, mirroring the Dakshinamurti aspect of Shiva in the Indian subcontinent. For distinct iconography, see Kramrisch, p. 185. [319] The Linga Purana mentions twenty-eight forms of Shiva which are sometimes seen as avatars,[320] however such mention is unusual and the avatars of Shiva is relatively rare in Shaivism compared to the well emphasized concept of Vishnu avatars in Vaishnavism. This ancient Indian colony in the south of China was a strong link in the Sino-Indian cultural relationship. Balagangadhara. But Shiva dissolves to create since death is … These are represented as the five faces of Shiva and are associated in various texts with the five elements, the five senses, the five organs of perception, and the five organs of action. [32] It is used as an adjective to characterize certain beliefs and practices, such as Shaivism. On his request Avalokiteshvara bestows the prophecy for Buddhahood. For Shiva drinking the poison churned from the world ocean see: Flood (1996), p. 78. [72][76] John Keay writes that "he may indeed be an early manifestation of Lord Shiva as Pashu-pati", but a couple of his specialties of this figure does not match with Rudra. For general statement of the close relationship, and example shared epithets, see: Sivaramamurti, p. 11. [253] Kramrisch translates it as "the ravisher". Shiva is often worshipped as one member of the Holy Trinity of Hinduism, with the gods Brahma (the Creator) and Vishnu (the Protector) being the other deities. For flaming hair of Agni and Bhairava see: Sivaramamurti, p. 11. And all beings in him, 150–151. For the definition "Śaivism refers to the traditions which follow the teachings of. Asko Parpola(2009), Deciphering the Indus Script, Cambridge University Press. Ludo Rocher (1986), The Puranas, Otto Harrassowitz Verlag. Moreover, it has diverse traditions, owing to its long history and continued development over the course of more than 3000 years. [251] R. K. Sharma follows this alternate etymology and translates the name as "terrible". the auspicious one) is one of the principal deities of Hinduism. [148][149], The Tantric Shiva tradition ignored the mythologies and Puranas related to Shiva, and depending on the sub-school developed a variety of practices. The Shaivaite Doctrine is directly rebuked here, those who worship Shiva as the Creator deity are criticized as "foolish common people" (pṛthagjana). [250] Stella Kramrisch notes a different etymology connected with the adjectival form raudra, which means "wild, of rudra nature", and translates the name Rudra as "the wild one" or "the fierce god". [187][188][190] Abhinavagupta writes in his notes on the relevance of ideas related to Shiva and Yoga, by stating that "people, occupied as they are with their own affairs, normally do nothing for others", and Shiva and Yoga spirituality helps one look beyond, understand interconnectedness, and thus benefit both the individual and the world towards a more blissful state of existence. [10][9] He is not only the creator in Shaivism, but he is also the creation that results from him, he is everything and everywhere. Left: Beyond the Indian subcontinent and Hinduism, harvnb error: multiple targets (3×): CITEREFKramrisch1981 (. Gregor Maehle (2009), Ashtanga Yoga, New World, sfn error: multiple targets (2×): CITEREFLochtefeld2002 (, sfn error: multiple targets (2×): CITEREFMcDaniel2004 (, For quotation defining the Trimurti see Matchett, Freda. [114]) Indra, like Shiva, is likened to a bull. Source of Spiritualism. This name was adopted by the great Vedanta philosopher Adi Shankara (c. 788–820),[258] who is also known as Shankaracharya. [356] It is also noted that Zoroastrian wind god Vayu-Vata took on the iconographic appearance of Shiva.[357]. kathaṁ sattvānāṁ dharmaṁ deśayati? However, Mahayana Buddhism was highly assimilative in nature. For translation see: Ganguli, Chapter 17 of Volume 13. With due respect toward the Buddhist prohibition of intoxicants, the author presents several methods for drilling the mind and awakening the body. The Rigveda, for example, has 3 out of 1,028 hymns dedicated to Rudra, and he finds occasional mention in other hymns of the same text. For complete Sanskrit text, translations, and commentary see: Sivaramamurti (1976). [120] Numismatics research suggests that numerous coins of the ancient Kushan Empire that have survived, were images of a god who is probably Shiva. [296][297][298] These are depicted in various designs. There is some uncertainty as the artwork that has survived is damaged and they show some overlap with meditative Buddha-related artwork, but the presence of Shiva's trident and phallic symbolism in this art suggests it was likely Shiva. I have entered Heaven and Earth. The Predominant deities of those times were Indra and Brahma. In simple English transliteration it is written either as Shiva or Siva. For Vedic Sanskrit meaning Lord has three mother eyes which symbolize eyes are the Sun, Moon and Fire. Shiva icons are carried in procession in some places. However, both traditions are pluralistic and revere both Shiva and Vishnu (along with Devi), their texts do not show exclusivism, and Vaishnava texts such as the Bhagavata Purana while praising Krishna as the Ultimate Reality, also present Shiva and Shakti as a personalized form an equivalent to the same Ultimate Reality. [77] Writing in 1997, Srinivasan interprets what John Marshall interpreted as facial as not human but more bovine, possibly a divine buffalo-man. [181] Popularized by Adi Shankara, many Panchayatana mandalas and temples have been uncovered that are from the Gupta Empire period, and one Panchayatana set from the village of Nand (about 24 kilometers from Ajmer) has been dated to belong to the Kushan Empire era (pre-300 CE). [187][188] These contain the philosophy and techniques for Yoga. For name Mahāyogi and associations with yoga, see, Chakravarti, pp. In the Rig Veda the term śiva is used to refer to Indra. Shiva was initially considered as an Emanation of Avalokiteshvara. One common form is the shape of a vertical rounded column in the centre of a lipped, disk-shaped object, the yoni, symbolism for the goddess Shakti. He teach us Shiva is Buddha (like the proof from Sutra about 12 Deva in Buddhism), then Shiva is mara , but that is His wonderful way to guide us recognize our inner mara ! He is the only Hindu God regarded as a Bodhisattva a (Buddha-to-be). Goldberg specifically rejects the translation by Frederique Marglin (1989) as "half-man, half-woman", and instead adopts the translation by Marglin as "the lord who is half woman" as given in Marglin (1989, 216). In this Chapter, Bodhisattva Akshayamati proceeds to ask the Buddha on how Avalokiteshvara frequents this world, the various methods He teaches the Dharma and also his Skillful means (Upāyakauśalya) adopted by him to teach the Dharma to all sentient beings. [104] Agni is said to be a bull,[105] and Lord Shiva possesses a bull as his vehicle, Nandi. [351], In the pre-Islamic period on the island of Java, Shaivism and Buddhism were considered very close and allied religions, though not identical religions. [268], Some regional deities are also identified as Shiva's children. (There are also Buddhist Tantras that deal with Shiva but thats for another day :-) ). When it requires the world or universe to be destroyed, Shiva does it by the Tandava,[282][283] and Lasya, which is graceful and delicate and expresses emotions on a gentle level and is considered the feminine dance attributed to the goddess Parvati. [354], The worship of Shiva became popular in Central Asia through the Hephthalite Empire,[355] and Kushan Empire. [337], Regional festivals dedicated to Shiva include the Chittirai festival in Madurai around April/May, one of the largest festivals in South India, celebrating the wedding of Minakshi (Parvati) and Shiva. In Hinduism, dharma is the religious and moral law governing individual conduct and is one of the four ends of life. The god Shiva is the other great figure in the modern pantheon. [262] While Vedic religion was conceived mainly in terms of sacrifice, it was during the Epic period that the concepts of tapas, yoga, and asceticism became more important, and the depiction of Shiva as an ascetic sitting in philosophical isolation reflects these later concepts. [47] There are at least eight different versions of the Shiva Sahasranama, devotional hymns (stotras) listing many names of Shiva. The Sanskrit word Shiva (Devanagari: शिव, śiva ) is an adjective meaning "pure and destroyer". He is usually worshipped in the aniconic form of lingam. [359] Shiva is also mentioned in Buddhist Tantra. Dharma, key concept with multiple meanings in Hinduism, Buddhism, and Jainism. At one instance, it is even said the Maha-Brahma himself had advised a Brahmin who had reached the heavenly Brahma-realm, to clear his doubts with the Buddha instead of him ! Maheshvara praises Avalokiteshvara and requests Vyakarana from him. Batara Guru's wife in southeast Asia is the same Hindu deity Durga, who has been popular since ancient times, and she too has a complex character with benevolent and fierce manifestations, each visualized with different names such as Uma, Sri, Kali and others. Both are associated with mountains, rivers, male fertility, fierceness, fearlessness, warfare, the transgression of established mores, the Aum sound, the Supreme Self. [155][156][157] The texts of Shaivism tradition similarly praise Vishnu. [...] We'll see some Buddhist Sutras that directly reference to Shiva as a deity. The Deities of the heavenly realms are shown to attend the Buddha's Sermon, headed by Vishnu and Shiva. Unlike Vishnu who is depicted as dark blue, Shiva is white in color, except for his neck which is dark blue because of the poison which he deposited there to save the worlds from destruction. The Buddhist Avalokiteshvara is linked to Shiva in many of these arts, but in others Shiva is linked to Bodhisattva Maitreya with he shown as carrying his own water pot like Vedic priests. [330], There is a Shivaratri in every lunar month on its 13th night/14th day,[331] but once a year in late winter (February/March) and before the arrival of spring, marks Maha Shivaratri which means "the Great Night of Shiva". He is also earthy and very much human like in his attitude. [361] In Mahayana Buddhist cosmology, Shiva resides in Akaniṣṭha, highest of Śuddhāvāsa (Pure Abodes) where Anāgāmi ("Non-returners") who are already on the path to Arhat-hood and who will attain enlightenment are born in. [144] The various dualistic and monist Shiva-related ideas were welcomed in medieval southeast Asia, inspiring numerous Shiva-related temples, artwork and texts in Indonesia, Myanmar, Cambodia, Laos, Vietnam, Thailand and Malaysia, with syncretic integration of local pre-existing theologies. [4][332], Maha Shivaratri is a major Hindu festival, but one that is solemn and theologically marks a remembrance of "overcoming darkness and ignorance" in life and the world,[332] and meditation about the polarities of existence, of Shiva and a devotion to humankind. [132] These extol Shiva as the metaphysical unchanging reality Brahman and the Atman (soul, self),[133] and include sections about rites and symbolisms related to Shiva. I give birth to Father (Heaven) on his (own) head [Agni]; my womb is in the waters, in the sea. Moens (1974), Het Buddhisme Java en Sumatra in Zijn laatste boeiperiods, T.B.G., pp. [106][107] In medieval sculpture, both Agni and the form of Shiva known as Bhairava have flaming hair as a special feature. Maha Sivaratri festival is observed in the night, usually in lighted temples or special. [9][10][11] In the Shaktism tradition, the Goddess, or Devi, is described as one of the supreme, yet Shiva is revered along with Vishnu and Brahma. [293], Shiva is often depicted as an archer in the act of destroying the triple fortresses, Tripura, of the Asuras. Kartikeya is worshipped in South India (especially in Tamil Nadu, Kerala and Karnataka) by the names Subrahmanya, Subrahmanyan, Shanmughan, Swaminathan and Murugan, and in Northern India by the names Skanda, Kumara, or Karttikeya. [363], In contemporary culture, Shiva is depicted in films, books, tattoos and art. [356] A panel from Dandan Oilik shows Shiva in His Trimurti form with Shakti kneeling on her right thigh. These include the Shiva Sutras, the Shiva Samhita, and those by the scholars of Kashmir Shaivism such as the 10th-century scholar Abhinavagupta. [31], The Sanskrit word śaiva means "relating to the god Shiva", and this term is the Sanskrit name both for one of the principal sects of Hinduism and for a member of that sect. The term Hindu originally referred to those living on the other side of the Indus River, and by the thirteenth century it simply referred to those living in India. Scholars such as Gavin Flood, John Keay and Doris Meth Srinivasan have expressed doubts about this suggestion. [58] According to Vijay Nath, for example: Vishnu and Siva [...] began to absorb countless local cults and deities within their folds. M. Hiriyanna (2000), The Essentials of Indian Philosophy, Motilal Banarsidass. [101] The identification of Agni with Rudra is explicitly noted in the Nirukta, an important early text on etymology, which says, "Agni is also called Rudra. [364] On television, Devon Ke Dev...Mahadev, a television serial about Lord Shiva on the Life OK channel was among the most watched shows at its peak popularity.

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