Bauer, A. J. BARLEY. Whereas each tassel contains some 25 million pollen grains, each female inflorescence or maize ear contains upwards of 1,000 ovules or potential kernels. Ackerman, Jennifer. "Millers and Grinders: Technology and Household Economy in Meso-America." It remains one of the major cereal crops…, Rice Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list. How to use maize in a sentence. Agricultural History 64 Agriculture, History of a tall annual grass, Zea mays, cultivated for its yellow edible grains, which develop on a spike. whether maize can be bred so as to assure the sustainable evolution of the crop (Sevilla, p. 221). In fact, the initial appearance of maize in Peru has been dated to 6070 b.c.e. "The Natural History of Maize (1990): 1–17. 27–28). Although it remains unclear who first introduced maize to Europe, Africa, and the Old World more generally, a number of scholars now argue that the Portuguese colonies of Africa served as the initial conduit to the diffusion of maize in that hemisphere. Subscribe to America's largest dictionary and get thousands more definitions and advanced search—ad free! Old World dispersals. TILLAGE. Some nineteen races of maize from ten Latin American countries have been identified with the Classic period of 300 to 900 C.E. In the Western world, the term maize is used interchangeably with corn. Cowan, R. "Amazing Gastronomy: Sup or Smut?" These example sentences are selected automatically from various online news sources to reflect current usage of the word 'maize.' Cite this article Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography. 38–46). New York: Atheneum, 1997. Nineteenth-century American maize farmers "Genetics and the Morphological Evolution of Maize." The maize, which is one of the major staple foods in the world, is used as filler for plastics, insulation and adhesives. The adoption of maize in Africa and China heralded a dramatic social and cultural transformation. There are some twenty-five "primary" races of maize found in Mesoamerica, and none of these is pure. 'Nip it in the butt' or 'Nip it in the bud'? Created within swamps, flooded bajos, or water-filled shallow limestone sinks or coastal estuaries, raised fields (or ridged islands or embankments) were formed into elongated, roughly rectangular agricultural parcels by piling soils or upcast scooped from drained areas immediately adjacent to the embankment or island. ." Encyclopedia.com. The specifics of maize production, reproduction, cultivation, processing, and consumption—its resiliency, mutability, as well as the intractability of cultural and botanical constraints—continue to provide science with insights into the past and possible future of the species. Pronunciation: (māz), Can you spell these 10 commonly misspelled words? Similar patterns affecting the displacement of men and or the relegation of women to maize-processing industries have been identified with the adoption of maize agriculture in Africa, Europe, and other regions of the Old World. Beginning in Italy, a variety of toppings and additives, including 441–442. In this way, the Mexican Aztecs and their predecessors increased their ability to feed a rapidly growing Basin population by expanding the amount of cultivable lands devoted to maize and related crop systems. This ancient city, which contained a population of some 150,000 people within an area of just under 8.5 square miles, was sustained through such productive systems of agricultural intensification during the period from 100 to 650 C.E. "Modern Variability and Patterns of Maize Movement in Mesoamerica." Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography. Learn more. maize meaning: 1. a tall plant grown in many parts of the world for its yellow seeds, which are eaten as food…. Benz, Bruce F. "Maize: Origin, Domestication, and Development." Benz, Bruce F. "Reconstructing the Racial Phylogeny of Mexican Maize: Where Do We Stand?" Southwestern Mission Research Center Newsletter 35 (2001): 52. Encyclopedia of Food and Culture. Please tell us where you read or heard it (including the quote, if possible). Maize was only found in the New World until Columbus introduced it into the Old World. A. Maize provides the world's most cost-effective and highest yield plant resource currently available for the production of livestock forage, fodder, and feed (Dowswell et al., 1996, pp. Mendoza, Ruben G. "Plant and Animal Domestication: Direct versus Indirect Evidence." A new combine harvester can cost from $100,000 to $200,000 or more in the United States. Maize spread across the length and breadth of the Americas, and subsequently to Europe, Africa, and Asia. 252 – 264). To this latter category may be added the proliferation of genetically engineered strains. Of these, two dominate American commercial agriculture and include the Flint (Zea indurata ) and Dent (Zea indentata ) varieties. "Diffusion of the Mesoamerican Food Complex to Southeastern Europe." It was ultimately determined that the niacin-deficient nature of maize-dominant diets played a key nutritional role in the onset of those symptoms identified with pellagra. Brenneman, Dale S. "The Verdict Is In: Corn Is the Direct Descendant of Teosinte." Once the forest parcel has been cleared, dibble sticks are used to pierce the soil adopted both the cylindrical silo or "corn crib" and the "dibble stick" from American Indian prototypes (Fussell, Both of these variations "stab" the soil and simultaneously dispense maize kernels into the holes (Fussell, pp. Send us feedback. Because it was nutritious, easy to store and carry, … Whereas subsistence farmers throughout much of the Third World continue to thresh maize by hand without specialized equipment or resources, this task is left to agribusiness giants and commercial agricultural concerns in industrialized nations. The Story of Corn. Africa's Emerging Maize Revolution. parviglumis ) in central America at least as early 9,000 years ago. Despite this, traditional household corncribs survived the onslaught of the Industrial Age, and survivals include the Mesoamerican cuezcomatl (thatch-roofed adobe brick granary), the crib-logged granaries of the Sierra Tarahumara Indians of northern Mexico, and the clay-lined maize grain silos of Africa. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. Anthropology, Archaeology. However, little of this maize is eaten directly by humans. “Maize.” Merriam-Webster.com Dictionary, Merriam-Webster, https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/maize. The Natural History of Maize Maize, also referred to as corn or Indian corn in the United States and Great Britain, respectively, is a cereal plant of the Gramineae family of grasses that today constitutes the most widely distributed food plant in the world. Recently, maize is grown throughout the world, United States, China, and Brazil being the top three maize-producing countries in the world . The productivity and efficiency of maize horticulture and its low production and transportation costs made it a cheap food for slaves captured and held by European and Arabic slave traders. This diverse body of scientific sources provides information about the natural and cultural history of maize. to science, agriculture, and industry helped fuel the industrialization and modernization of maize procurement, processing, storage, distribution, and hybridization. The use of metate grinding slabs and the pestle (metlapilli or tejolote ) provided a range of nutritive and socioeconomic benefits: (1) reduction, fractionation, and mineral supplementation of maize kernels, (2) lime treatment, (3) the shearing stroke used to process maize kernels, (4) craft specialization and the appearance of markets oriented to the production and exchange of maize-tortilla technologies, (5) nutritional and subsistence economics of maize preparation, (6) the social and economic reorganization of maize preparation, including cooperative production among households and the appearance of specialists such as tortilla vendors, and (7) the emergence of maize-tortilla technology and equipment—including comalli or comal ceramic griddles—that were indicators of social or economic status. The advent of the canning industry in 1862 and the proliferation of new land-grant colleges devoted Scientists believe that maize is derived from an earlier ancestral plant called teosinte. New Brunswick, N.J.: Rutgers University Press, 1990. It dyes silk and wool reddish-yellow in an acid bath. mays ) and the teosintes (Zea spp.) Even the timing of maize origins has been questioned. (October 16, 2020). After 1492, maize rapidly diffused into Europe, Africa, and Asia and was successful in large part because it did not directly compete with existing grain crops such as rice, wheat, oats, millet, and barley. Botanical taxonomists have loosely grouped these varieties into some 300 races for the Western Hemisphere alone. New York: Oxford University Press, 2001. Term: Polis Definition: The main political unit in ancient Greece, a city-state made up of a city and its surrounding countryside. There is no agreement about the taxonomic names or numbers of races that may exist in any single world region. Even an older combine or harvester can harvest some 10,000 bushels of maize per day, yielding 150 to 200 bushels per acre. Neolithic maize-tortilla technology persisted well into the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries throughout Mesoamerica, and the Americas more generally. Six of these evidenced interactions between Mesoamerican and Peruvian societies from the most remote periods of pre-Columbian cultural development. Journal of Heredity 30 (1939): 245–247. Find definitions for: maize. The reason for this is that all grains were called corn under early British and American trade and the name was retained for maize because it was the most common grain in commerce. The work recounts the creation of the world, the exploits of the hero twins Hunahpu and Xbalanque in the underworld and their triumph over the Lords of Death, the creation of humans, and the early history of Quiche migration and settlement up until the Spanish Conquest in the 16th century CE. The evolutionary history and inherent mutability of maize are so complex that scientists continue to debate and question the taxonomic identification of all the extant races of maize in both wild and domestic contexts. a yellow colour. New York: North Point, 1992. Ecuador, Chile, and Argentina, with Andean Peru, form a likely corridor for the transmission of maize from Guatemalan sources into coastal valleys. Start studying AP World History Period 4. Maize made possible the efficient and economical transport and exchange of horrific numbers of sub-Saharan Africans destined for the markets of Europe, the Middle East, and the Americas. While the eight-rowed variety of maize was cultivated in the southeastern United States in pre-Columbian times, the Southern Dent Pathway accounts for the distributions of other varieties of maize after 1500 C.E., subsequent to Spanish contact in those regions. Hammond, Norman. Tomatoes, Potatoes, Corn, and Beans: How the Foods of the Americas Changed Eating around the World. 1996. Enfield, N.H.: Science, 1998. Despite these distinctions, Doebley acknowledges that maize and the Mexican teosintes are essentially variants of the same biological species. The Green Revolution was the notable increase in cereal-grains production in Mexico, India, Pakistan, the Philippines, and other de…, Barley In The Oxford Encyclopedia of Mesoamerican Cultures: The Civilizations of Mexico and Central America, edited by David Carrasco, vol. Scholars agree that maize was domesticated from the plant teosinte ( Zea mays spp. Encyclopedia of Food and Culture. Maize for Spanish Speakers, Britannica.com: Encyclopedia article about maize. and Ronald p. Cantrell to be found the! Farmers perform TILLAGE when they prepare soil for the study of genetics and biochemistry views expressed the... 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