what is travel angle in welding what is travel angle in welding

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what is travel angle in welding

In the diagram on the right, the travel angle shows a 5-10 degree tilt along the joint. Cleaning your weld edges in advance is also important. This procedure fills the crater and prevents porosity and slag inclusions. The word 'travel' describes the movement of your torch. Flat Position Narrow Bead Weld To increase the depth of fusion, either increase the angle between the tip and the plate surface, or decrease the welding speed. Held close to the work plates, the current and heat in the weld remains high. When learning any new process you'll likely start off doing things wrong. You should also tack your plates and use clamps as needed to prevent the joint from closing up in advance of the weld, or other distortion caused by heat. The travel angle is the angle between a line perpendicular to the weld axis and the electrode. As the angle between the electrode and the plate determines the point of impingement and direction of the arc force, it has a critical effect on the weld bead profile and depth of penetration. It is what most robots use to weld and it can produce a perfect weld in any position. When you drag your torch or electrode, the tilt is directed towards the puddle, which helps with penetration and achieving a thick bead. Traveling angle denotes to the perpendicular position of the gun whilst working angle is more important as it denotes to the position of the gun in relation to the welding joint angle. The travel angle is the angle of the wire as it travels along the weld path. Travel angle is the angle in the direction of welding and may vary from 5 to 30 degrees, depending on the welder's choice and conditions (fig. Where access to the reverse side of the joint is available, the condition of the penetration bead is less important as the root bead can be ground to sound metal and a sealing pass deposited. - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -. Length of Arc - How close to the work plates the welder holds the arc of a wire or welding electrode can affect the amount of current and heat going into the joint. In addition to CLAMS, there are a few other variables to think about when planning a weld operation: Joint Design and Fit-Up: How you prepare your work plates (or stationary structure) for welding may contribute more to the outcome of the operation than anything else. Travel Angle – The angle less than 90 degrees between the electrode axis and a line perpendicular to the weld axis, in a plane determined by the electrode axis and the weld axis. Going beyond 25 degrees increases spatter decreases arc stability and leads to less penetration. For this reason, students also learn the difference between Electrode StickOut (the wire length from the contact tip) and Contact-To-Work-Distance . Also, when the rate of voltage is too low, the weld bead sits on top of the base metal rather than penetrating into it. This process aids in relieving built-up stresses and preventing surface cracking in the joint area; however, peening should be done with care because excess hammering can work harden and increase stresses in the weld. The flame is pointed in the direction of welding and directed between the rod and the molten puddle. 7-16). The major cause of undercuts in welding is when the operator (welder) uses a high welding current or welds with fast travel speed. So voltage determines the overall profile, or geometry, of the weld. As you can see in the first diagram, the angle of the torch to the work piece (left) is 90 degrees, allowing maximum heat and current focused down into the open groove butt joint. for uphill mig, a 90 degree angle works good. For a 2F horizontal Tee, I used a slight drag pull angle of around 5-10 degrees. For welding vertical up, use a push or forehand technique and tilt the top of the electrode 0 to 15 degrees away from the direction of travel. Peening is a procedure that involves lightly hammering a weld as it cools. Heat Dispersal: Different metals disperse heat differently. The normal travel angle for all sorts of conditions and positions are from 5 to 15 degrees. Beginner welders tend to move the rod too quickly, especially those who are transitioning to arc welding from another welding process. This gives the welder a better view of what's going on in the puddle. Work angle is especially important in multiple-pass fillet welding. As you learn more about the chemical and mechanical properties of different metals and alloys, you may decide to include a pre or post heat treatment or your work pieces as part of the welding operation. The more the travel angle, the welds result in more spatter, less penetration, and the instability of the arc. Work angle. for downhill mig, a 90 degree works but a pull torch angle of up to 20 deg seems to work better at keeping the puddle pushed back from the arc. Arc welding students remember most of them by reciting the acronym "CLAMS", since each letter stands for a welding parameter. The proper welding gun or work angle, travel angle and MIG welding technique depends on the thickness of the base metal and the welding position. so does a slight push angle of up to about 10 degrees. The travel angle is also known as the drag or push angle. ------------------------------------------, Copyright © 2012-2015 TheCityEdition.com, Improving Your Stick Welding Technique MillerWelds.com, Open root v groove butt joint 3G vertical up video, Using CLAMS paramenters in Stick Welding The second angle used in welding is the travel angle. Push c. Drag d. This depends upon the welding position. If a large drag angle is utilized, air may be drawn into the shielding gas and contaminate the weld. Reduce your travel speed so the weld metal completely fills the melted-out areas of the base metal. Normally it should be around 5 to 15 degrees. As described in Types of Beads, a weave, whip, drag or push motion are all examples of manipulation. The image below shows you the travel angle. Angle - There are two torch angles to remember when welding. For stick welding, you have to drag the weld. The principle of metal cored wire welding is given in the picture below. A grinder also removes cracks on the surface. Rod angle, arc length, travel speed and welding motion are illustrated with photos and videos, and a video shows the effect of varying the arc length. 2F is a fillet weld position, in which the welding is done on the upper side of the surfaces that is approximately horizontal that lies against a surface that is approximately vertical. Electrode angle is pretty forgiving as long as the arc length is tight. With a fillet (tee) weld, hold the rod or wire (regardless of weld process) at a 45° angle between the two pieces of metal. When wire welding (MIG or flux-core), the ridge should be approximately ⅜ inch behind the wire electrode, Hoes … In most conditions, this will be between 5 and 15 degrees. Here's the list: Current - Amperage generally dictates the size and penetration of a weld bead when you're moving your torch at the right speed. A typical pipe butt weld set-up would be 60° included angle, 1mm to 2mm root gap and a zero to 1.5mm thick root face. For wire welding, Hoes and Liesner recommend holding the gun at a 10 to 15-degree angle. google_ad_height = 600; The work and travel angle is the angle you have the torch at in relation to the base metal (where you are going to weld). The travel angle shown is … As a student, it's easy to assume that once the metal heats up, everything falls together naturally and all the little rough spots will disappear like magic. The maximum speed of welding depends on the skill of the operator, the position of the weld, the type of electrode, and the required joint penetration. Speed - If you move too fast, the size of the weld will be small and achieve insufficient penetration. /* 120x600, created 3/17/09 */ What is the work angle and travel angle for Lap Joints in the Flat Position when welding a multi-pass? Strike the tip of the new electrode at the forward (cold) end of the crater and establish an arc. Travel Angle: the degree of the travel angle, whether a push or drag travel angle, affects how much of the arc force is directed down into the base plate. In fact, you can make things worse if you don't take the time to do your fit-up correctly. Variations in the ESO or CTWD affect the amount of the current going into the joint, regardless of the wirespeed setting on the machine. You can increase the length of the arc to reduce heat to the puddle or to limit the deposition of weld metal. In stick welding, the welder sets the voltage directly but not the current, so the machines are referred to as Constant Current (CC). Similar to MAG welding torch position and angles can be applied (however rutile flux cored will require different techniques). Move the arc backward over the crater, and then move forward again and continue the weld. Correcting the problem is relatively simple: reduce the welding current, decrease the welding arc voltage and adjust your MIG gun angle toward the joint. The tip should form an angle of approximately 45 degrees with the plate surface. Ideally, you'll hold your torch perpendicular, or 90 degrees, to the joint. What gun travel angle is recommended for GMAW-P aluminum? Travel angle is defined as the angle relative to the gun in a perpendicular position. The most common travel angle is called a drag angle in which the electrode points in a direction opposite that of the arc travel. google_ad_width = 120; When welding on 10- to 18-gauge sheet steel, the fastest travel speeds are obtained with the work positioned at 45 to 75 degrees downhill. In order to see the joint and puddle, the welder may tip the rod up to 10 degrees in the direction of travel, or sometimes against the direction of travel. Held farther away, the electrode produces less heat and more spatter. When it becomes necessary to reestablish the arc (as in a long weld that requires the use of more than one electrode), the crater must first be cleaned before striking the arc. If you have any website suggestions or concerns, email welder [at] thecityedition [dot] com. Stick and wire welding require different angles. //-->, Welder Qualification Test Via Advice section, Open root v groove butt joint 3G vertical up. The mass of your work pieces also has an effect, with tinier work pieces heating up much faster than large, heavy pieces.. Low-carbon steel can be very forgiving when overheated, but other metals may lose their tensile strength or other qualities if you don't monitor the heat going in and out of the plates or pipe. This condition leads to weld embrittlement and early failure. The travel angle is that angle which is defined when the gun is in a perpendicular position within the joint plane. This is the relationship between the torch and line of travel. See Weld Defects for more on this subject. Move too slow and you'll end up with a fat weld bead and likely too much heat going into your work plates. a. But if it crosses 20 degrees, it may result in weak penetration and instability of the arc. Normally, a small variance of the work angle will not affect the appearance or quality of a weld; however, when undercuts occur in the vertical section of a fillet weld, the angle of the arc should be lowered and the electrode directed more toward the vertical section. Notice that when the voltage is too high, the bead is wide and flat. Travel Speed In most cases, weld penetration into a base material is increased when the travel speed of a weld is increased, and vice versa. For most wire welding applications, this angle is 15 to 30 degrees. That's because the quench has a sort of traumatizing effect to the metal and can make it brittle. The flame will be pointed in the welding direction. A travel angle of 0° to 10° (i.e., the electrode perpendicular or mostly perpendicular to the plate) will result in more weld penetration. While some stick electrodes are designed to penetrate through rust and millscale, those impurities can still cause problems. Naturally, the techniques are somewhat different because of the equipment involved is different. (Think of this as the front view of the work plates.) Second pass 70° from the bottom plate and to posit the weld along the bottom toe of the root pass. The electrode angle consists of two positions: work angle and travel angle. Some stick machines also have a setting known as Dig. It comes down to machine settings, electrode angle and travel speed. TheFabricator.com,