In the words of Simon, The hypothesis [is] that intelligence is the work of symbol systems. Abstract. The hypothesis states that “[i]ntelligence is the work of symbol systems…a physical symbol system has the necessary and sufficient means for general intelligent action.”  AI computers, as recognized physical symbol systems, are able to exhibit intelligence, and humans, as intelligent beings, must also be physical symbol systems… a hypothesis regarding the purpose and adequacy of capturing intelligence in computational systems. The Physical Symbol System Hypothesis. This point has long been acknowledged by AI researchers as evidenced by the inclusion of “signal-to-symbol transformation” processes in several AI systems… Herbert Simon has long been a leading advocate of a dominant role for symbol processing within artificial intelligence, going so far as to posit, in his and Alan Newell's "physical symbol system hypothesis," that being a physical symbol system … Thus, it is a hypothesis … The physical symbol system hypothesis of Newell and Simon: A classroom demonstration of artificial intelligence. the physical symbol system hypothesis is a hypothesis about intelligence and intelligent action this means that it has to explain what thinking consists in—whether in human beings or in machines and here we have the distinctive claim of the physical symbol system hypothesis The physical symbol system hypothesis (PSSH) is a position in the philosophy of artificial intelligence … Symbolic artificial intelligence is the term for the collection of all methods in artificial intelligence research that are based on high-level "symbolic" (human-readable) representations of problems, logic … The Physical Symbol System Hypothesis: Status and Prospects 13 activities that are in closest contact with the environment. The hypothesis postulates that a necessary and sufficient condition for a physical system to show general intelligent action is that it be a physical symbol system. Physical Symbol Systems* ... my estimate, the most fundamental contribution so far of artificial intelligence and computer science to the joint enterprise of cognitive science has been the notion of a physical symbol system, i.e., the concept of D broad class of systems ... to this concept of a system. The physical system hypothesis was first proposed by Herbert Simon and Allen Newell in a famous paper called "Computer Science as Empirical Enquiry", published in the early 1970s. A physical symbol system (also called a formal system) takes physical patterns (symbols), combining them into structures (expressions) and manipulating them (using processes) to produce new expressions. The Physical Symbol System Hypothesis: Weak AI Versus Strong AI In a lecture that coincided with their reception of the prestigious Turing Prize in 1975, Allen Newell and Herbert Simon (Newell and Simon, 1976) formulated the “Physical Symbol System” hypothesis, according to which “a physical symbol system … I analyze some of the attacks against the Physical Symbol System Hypothesis—attacks based on the presumed need for symbol-grounding and non-symbolic processing for intelligent behavior and … September 1985; ACM SIGCSE Bulletin 17(3) DOI: 10.1145/382208.382515.
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