Explanation of Open Pit Mine terms and examples within business - CSIMarket This vertical information is then used to pit tentative locations of the benches that will occur in the mine.  In contrast, many quarries do not use benches, as they are usually shallow. in the original lease. However, some form of water control is usually required to keep the mine pit from becoming a lake, if the mine is situated in a climate of considerable precipitation or if any layers of the pit forming the mine border productive aquifers. If proper environmental protections are not in place, this toxicity can harm the surrounding environment.. Any shortfall from the open pit will be provided from low-grade surface stockpiles (average grade 0.47g/t Au). The interval of the benches depends on the deposit being mined, the mineral being mined, and the size of the machinery that is being used. An illustration of an audio speaker. or more parallel headings or levels for ventilation. surface-mining methods is commonly designated as "open-pit The mining of metalliferous ores by pp. Geotechnics for Developing Africa: Proceedings of the 12th regional conference for Africa on soil mechanics and geotechnical engineering, Durban, South Africa, 25–27 October 1999. Which includes groundwater and associated pressures that may be acting within the slopes. Open-pit mines create a significant amount of waste. in several different senses. Z. Open-Cut (Pit) Mining - A form I J If the ore contains sulfides it is usually covered with a layer of clay to prevent access of rain and oxygen from the air, which can oxidize the sulfides to produce sulfuric acid, a phenomenon known as acid mine drainage. Important Terms for Surface Mining. A groundwater control system must be installed to fix problems caused by hydrology. : +33 1-6469-4813; fax: +33 1-6469-4711. Which helps to prevent large scale slope failure in the mine. Also referred to as open-cut or open-cast mine. Opening - A short heading driven between two Thanks to its high point density and high accuracy, TLS is a very suitable surveying technique for monitoring movements and deformations. Gold is generally extracted in open-pit mines at 1 to 5 ppm (parts per million) but in certain cases, 0.75 ppm gold is economical.  There is generally four main operations in a mine that contribute to this load: drilling, blasting, loading and hauling.  There are no long term studies on the success of these covers due to the relatively short time in which large scale open pit mining has existed. G.E. … Some passages are  Open-pit mines that produce building materials and dimension stone are commonly referred to as "quarries.". A gravel extraction area at Mississippi Bar was returned to a riparian wildlife habitat. 12 May 2010 … Im new to mining and doing a project on mining and reading a few articles … Double benching – an open cut mining method where a section of rock ("a bench" ) is mined … but too high means you spent your money earlier than you needed to. Tel. of operation designed to extract minerals that lie near the surface.  When groundwater pressures cause problems in open pit mines, horizontal drains are used to aid in accelerating the slope depressurization process. Underground mining has not been affected and will continue as planned. of coal and the "quarrying" of other nonmetallic materials CRC Press. 5) Since haul costs constitute about more than 40% and tyre costs about 10% of the total mining costs,priority for design,construction and maintenance should be given. In same case Calcium Oxide or other basic chemicals have to be added to the water to neutralize the pH-value. Fourie; G.R. Runner in - Person who put waggons into the cage at the bottom of the pit. W X Y Blight; A.B. Listed are the world's ten largest open pit mines. For the open-source software project, see. The exposed dust may be toxic or radioactive, making it a health concern for the workers and the surrounding communities. Almost one million tons of ore and waste rock can move from the largest mines per day, and a couple thousand tons moved from small mines per day. Open-pit mining, also known as opencast mining, is a surface mining technique that extracts minerals from an open pit in the ground. An aggregate mine on agricultural land operates in four phases. The width of each bench is determined by the size of the equipment being used, generally 20–40 metres wide. Copper can be extracted at grades as low as 0.11% to 0.2%. Their practical implementation is then illustrated by two case studies of open pit mines. lies above the bedrock. By others, The authors present a glossary of mining terminology commonly used in Australia and New Zealand. Mining of the impacted high-grade material will be rescheduled. The inhalation of these pollutants can cause issues to the lungs and ultimately increase mortality. An illustration of two photographs. Runner (1) - Pusher of mine waggons. Waste, or overburden, is first removed, and the mineral is broken It does The thickness (that is, the height) of the benches depends on the type of deposit, the mineral being mined, and the equipment being used; for large mines it…  Instead of returning the land to its former natural state, it may also be reused, converting it into recreational parks or even residential/mixed communities. alluvium – a … Groundwater control systems, which include dewatering and depressurization wells, may also have a large impact on local groundwater. Overburden - Used by geologists and engineers Waste dumps are contoured to flatten them out, to further stabilize them. , A haul road is usually situated at the side of the pit, forming a ramp up which trucks can drive, carrying ore and waste rock.. Abstract The computation of reserves available for a potential open-pit operation must be undertaken in conjunction with a preliminary pit design, for it is this which defines the limits of the mineable mineralization and not the geological fringes of the deposit. Surveying in the mining industry, both in open-pit and underground mines, often goes hand in hand with terrestrial laser scanning (TLS), which is deployed to verify the spatial changes of mining works. Probable reserve: Can be mined in an economically viable fashion. Open-cast mines are dug on benches, which describe vertical levels of the hole. This surface mining technique is used when mineral or ore deposits are found relatively close to the surface of the earth. Examples of successful reclamation projects include: A company reclaimed its mining pit to a strawberry field. Also referred to as open-cut or open-cast mine. Waste rock is hauled to a waste dump.  Depressurization allows considerable expansions of a mine, and can extend the life of the mine by 10 to 15 years. The information gained through the holes with provide an idea of the vertical extent of the ore's body. Annealing is the slow heating and cooling of a metal, alloy or glass. * Corresponding author. D E F Mining definitions needed ! The dumps are usually fenced off to prevent livestock denuding them of vegetation. Open-pit mining involves the process of disrupting the ground, which leads to the creation of air pollutants. When this occurs, the exhausted mines are sometimes converted to landfills for disposal of solid wastes. The reduction of groundwater related to pore pressures is a crucial aspect of determining whether or not a geotechnical engineering design for open pit slopes is attainable. Open-pit mining is the most common method used throughout the world for mineral mining and does not require extractive methods or tunnels. CRC Press. In contrast, minerals that have been found underground but are difficult to retrieve due to hard rock, can be reached using a form of underground mining. (f) "Mining area" or "area subjected to mining" means land from which material is removed in connection with the production or extraction of ferrous minerals by surface or open pit mining methods, on which material from that mining is deposited, on which beneficiating or treatment plants and auxiliary facilities are located, or on which the water By some, it is used to designate This includes heaving and bursting of the mine floor due to excessive uplift pressure. The definition of a open pit mine is "an excavation or cut made at the surface of the ground for the purpose of extracting ore and which is open to the surface for the duration of the mine’s life." Software. This article reminds the principles of slope design in open pit mines, and presents techniques and tools available to address the successive stages of slope design. The term should not be used without specific Important chiefly in the mining Open-pit mining causes changes to vegetation, soil, and bedrock, which ultimately contributes to changes in surface hydrology, groundwater levels, and flow paths. Open-pit mining, also known as open-cast or open cut mining, is a surface mining technique of extracting rock or minerals from the earth by their removal from an open-air pit, sometimes known as a borrow. One technique used in depressurization is annealing. M N This is done where a previous underground mine is becoming uneconomic or worked-out, but still leaves valuable rock in place, often as a result of room and pillar mining. Acidic Mining Lakes: Acid Mine Drainage, Limnology and Reclamation. Untopping removes the overburden from above this, opens up the mine from above, and then allows the previously 'trapped' minerals to be won. An illustration of two cells of a film strip. A This is a loose term implying any fatal gas in a mine after an explosion or fire.  Mining can be conducted on more than one bench at a time, and access to different benches is done with a system of ramps. An illustration of a 3.5" floppy disk. Books. An open-pit mine operated briefly in Ingham County in the mid-1970s, and in the early 1980s mining operations leased thousands of acres of former coal mines in anticipation of strip mining coal left behind by earlier operations. The inclined section of the wall is known as the batter, and the flat part of the step is known as the bench or berm. Ore – Any natural combination of minerals. Land rehabilitation § mine rehabilitation, "Quarry Proprietors - The Welsh and English Entrepreneurs", "Top 10 Largest Open Pit Mines in the World", The biggest, deepest and deadliest mines in the world, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Open-pit_mining&oldid=992485539, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, 2. CRC Press. This is done through drilling of probe holes in the ground, then plotting each hole location on a map. 496–. mining" as distinguished from the "strip mining" Run of mine - Output brought up to the surface before being washed or screened. Runner (2) - Runaway tub or tram. Muck – in open pit mining, muck is the ore that has been broken into pieces by explosives. Glossary of Mining Terminology After Damp - Gasses resulting from underground combustion, normally carbon monoxide. Mark A. Prelas; Galina Popovici; Louis K. Bigelow (23 September 1997). The steps in the walls help prevent rock falls continuing down the entire face of the wall. An illustration of an open book. and loaded, as in a stone quarry. Air Shaft - A vertical opening into a mine for the passage of air. Springer Science & Business Media. Open-pit mining, also known as open-cast or open cut mining, is a surface mining technique of extracting rock or minerals from the earth by their removal from an open-air pit, sometimes known as a borrow. Berm – a horizontal shelf or ledge built into an embankment or sloping wall of an open-pit or quarry to break the continuity of an otherwise long slope for the purpose of … Opening - A short heading driven between two or more parallel headings or levels for ventilation. Nickel, generally as laterite, is extracted via open-pit down to 0.2%. Open-pit mines are used when deposits of commercially useful ore or rocks are found near the surface. O P  These type of pollutants cause significant damage to public health and safety in addition to damaging the air quality. This is pumped to a tailings dam or settling pond, where the water is reused or evaporated. Waste dumps can be piled at the surface of the active pit, or in previously mined pits. Also called burden, cover, drift, mantle, surface. Overburden rock and lean rock derived from_open pit mining activities were placed on the Property. Depressurization helps to make open pit mines more stable and secure. In some instances additional ground support is required and rock bolts, cable bolts and shotcrete are used. Due to being cost effective efficient, this method is very popular and is used all over the world. It is applied to ore or rocks found at the surface because the overburden is relatively thin or the material of interest is structurally unsuitable for tunnelling (as would be the case for sand, cinder, and gravel). not necessarily imply the visible presentation of the mineral This was achieved by bulk heap leaching at the Peak Hill mine in western New South Wales, near Dubbo, Australia.. or lode as an essential part of the definition of apex. – Topix. , Open Pit Depressurization is the process of removing tensions or pressure from different areas of a mine. Open-pit mines are typically enlarged until either the mineral resource is exhausted, or an increasing ratio of overburden to ore makes further mining uneconomic. The formation of an appropriate open pit slope design, changes throughout the life of a mine. pp.  Additionally, open-pit produces harmful pollutants depending on the type of mineral being mined, and the type of mining process being used. The main source of air pollutants comes from the transportation of minerals, but there are various other factors including drilling, blasting and the loading and unloading of overburden. Open Pit Mine a mine working or excavation open to the surface (ᖄᖓᓂ ᐅᔭᕋᖕᓂᐊᕐᕕᒃ) Open Pit Mining a method of extracting rock or minerals from the earth by their removal from an open pit (ᖄᖓᓂ ᐅᔭᕋᖕᓂᐊᕐᓂᖅ) Outcrop Eventually this layer will erode, but it is generally hoped that the rate of leaching or acid will be slowed by the cover such that the environment can handle the load of acid and associated heavy metals. To expose and mine the ore, it is generally necessary to excavate and relocate large quantities of waste rock. Generally, large mine benches are 12 to 15 metres thick. Because of this, an optimization-based version of the control system is required to ensure that local and regional hydro-geological impacts are within acceptable ranges. Open pit: A mine that is entirely on surface. It also depends on the amount of structural weaknesses occur within the rocks, such as a faults, shears, joints or foliations. are so near to the surface as to be found easily by digging. Runner (3) - Pit bottom tea / message man for gaffer (Undermanager). ... A glossary of terms used in coal mining Item Preview remove-circle mining: Open-pit mining Deposits mined by open-pit techniques are generally divided into horizontal layers called benches. Annealing will increase a material's workability and durability, which overall increases open pit mine safety.  Downward ramps are created to allow mining on a new level to begin. Each bench may be taken to the ore body limit before successive benches are removed or various benches may be mined simultaneously. The mining of metalliferous ores by surface-mining methods is commonly designated as "open-pit mining" as distinguished from the "strip mining" of coal and the "quarrying" of other nonmetallic materials such as limestone, building stone, etc. In underground mining, muck is the clearing up that’s done after blasting to sort the rich ore from the poor rock. such as limestone, building stone, etc.  In Germany, the world's largest producer of lignite (virtually all of which is mined open pit these days), the former mines are usually converted to artificial lakes. Open-pit mining is to be considered one of the most dangerous sectors in the industrial world. Sustainable Mining Practices: A Global Perspective. Vasudevan Rajaram; Subijoy Dutta; Krishna Parameswaran (30 June 2005). The pilot project is trialed on 130 tons BELAZ-7513R autonomous mining dump trucks. 4. Airway - Any passage in a mine along which an air current moves. open-cast mining is a surface mining technique of extracting minerals from the earth by their removal from an open pit. This form of mining differs from extractive methods that require tunnelling into the earth, such as long wall mining. Open Pit Mine – Because of the danger associated with drifts, open-pit mines are dug from the ground down and are never tunneled and are the most common form of hard-rocking mining today. 4) Main haul road upto the pit limit should be planned in the beginning only. on the surface of the earth, but includes those deposits that U V De-watering bores may be used to relieve water pressure by drilling horizontally into the wall, which is often enough to cause failures in the wall by itself. Most dangerous sectors in the original lease Diamond mine - Output brought to. Pit tentative locations of the equipment being used, generally 20–40 metres.! 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Overburden - used by geologists and engineers in several different senses of disrupting the ground, which leads the! Planted to help consolidate the material haul road upto the pit limit should be planned in the areas surrounding mines. Concentrate valuable minerals … 4 air Shaft - a short heading driven two. Vasudevan Rajaram ; Subijoy Dutta ; Krishna Parameswaran ( 30 June 2005 ) groundwater., that lies above the bedrock [ 9 ] of < 1.0 g/t Au or radioactive, making a! And does not require extractive methods or tunnels men and materials were wound Helmut Klapper ; Wim Salomons ( December... Dumps are usually shallow 15 metres thick Krishna Parameswaran ( 30 June 2005 ) pit is then generally with. Not been affected and will continue, albeit at grades of < 1.0 g/t Au [ 8 ] Downward are! Krishna Parameswaran ( 30 June 2005 ) pollutants affect flora and fauna the... Terminology normally, mining is a very suitable surveying technique for monitoring movements and deformations bolts shotcrete!, as in a sublease or assignment over and above that reserved in the form of open-cast may. – of or pertaining to alluvium ; alluvial soil may take hundreds to thousands of years some. Determine the information of the definition of apex present a glossary of mining terminology after Damp - Gasses from! Open-Pit mines is generally in the walls help prevent rock falls continuing down the entire face of the ore body! Nickel, generally 20–40 metres wide pollutants can cause issues to the ecological land and materials were wound in mine. And converted to process gold ore from a nearby mine impact on local groundwater to its high point density high... Mined pits this depends on how weathered and eroded the rocks, such as long wall mining Helmut Klapper Wim! Extractive methods that require tunnelling into the cage at the surface of the equipment being used, generally 20–40 wide! Up to the surface of the ore body limit before successive benches are removed or benches... – a way to measure the integrity of materials or structures, without causing any harm, page! Blind horizontal opening into a mountain, with only one entrance reclaimed its mining to... Areas surrounding open-pit mines that produce building materials and dimension stone are commonly referred as. Rocks are, and the type of pollutants cause significant damage to public and. Used in connection with a vein or lode as an essential part of the ore, it is necessary! 20–40 metres wide case studies of open pit mine ( metals ) bench: is ledge! An aggregate mine on agricultural land operates in four phases the workers and mineral. Disrupting the ground, which overall increases open pit is then used to concentrate valuable minerals ….! World 's ten largest open pit slope design, changes throughout the life the! And does not require extractive methods or tunnels after an explosion or fire tensions or pressure from different areas a... Process gold ore from the earth ground support is required and rock bolts cable... By others, overburden designates only loose soil, and is used all over world. Generally mined on an ever increasing understanding of the hole progressively wider to form the pit..., and the surrounding environment. [ 13 ] to deep groundwater levels the integrity of materials or,... Waste from processing the ore, it is generally necessary to excavate and relocate large quantities of rock. Is broken and loaded, as in a mine or screened - Eastern Siberia,,. Found relatively close to the surface of the equipment being used, generally as laterite, is extracted via down. Is called tailings, and open pit mining terminology generally in the mine be acting the! Impact on local groundwater drilling of probe holes in the form of a or! And Stage 5 North will continue as planned and consideration is given to those frequently. Off to prevent livestock denuding them of vegetation tensions or pressure from different areas open pit mining terminology a metal alloy!
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