Climate change has highly impacted South Africa, primarily due to increased temperatures and rainfall variability. They bring in a lot of rainfall especially to the northern parts of Zimbabwe. All Rights Reserved. Weather Bureau, Private Bag X097, Pretoria, 0001, South Africa. South Africa was divided into a total of 94 rainfall districts by SAWS (then the South African Weather Bureau: SAWB, 1972), which are presented in Fig. South Africa is a sunny country, averaging 8–10 daily sunshine hours in most regions. This is illustrated by the yearly rainfall difference between Port Nolloth on the west coast, 50 mm and Richards Bay, 1 000 mm at the same latitude on the east coast. The high rainfall in KwaZulu-Natal and the north-eastern parts of the Eastern Cape is due to moisture-laden air brought in from the warm Mozambique current. This makes the ocean important to South Africa and its citizens.  As part of its international commitments, South Africa has pledged to peak emissions between 2020 and 2025. The central Eastern Cape revealed an important special summer rain pattern; a small peak in spring and a fairly large peak in late summer/early autumn. With an average annual rainfall of only 464mm (18.2 in), the Western Cape gets most of its rainfall in winter. Since then, flooding has been reported in Morogoro, Katavi, Mtwara and Dar es Salaam. Low rainfall and very high temperatures place water stress on growing summer crops. The high rainfall in the mountains is due to orographic rains. In in the Western Cape rainsfall comes in the winter which is May to August and in most of the Eastern Cape, it is distributed evenly throughout the year. Effect of interior plateau on South Africa’s weather: Summer: Geography Grade 12 www.learnxtra.co.za Brought to you by Page 6 In summer the Sub tropical High pressure belt (Kalahari high pressure) moves south with the Heat Equator. World, Europe Africa Japan - Source: SAT24.com Regular cold fronts pass over in winter bringing very cold southerly winds but usually clear skies. Mpumalanga Climate (South Africa) >>Mpumalanga Weather by month // weather averages >>Mpumalanga Climate graph // Weather by Month >>Mpumalanga average temperature >>Mpumalanga Weather; Mpumalanga climate summary The Mpumalanga lies on 665m above sea level The climate in Mpumalanga is warm and temperate. The coast of South Africa and Mozambique receives some winter rainfall, particularly in the winter rainfall region of southwest South Africa. By and large the Witwatersrand marks the watershed between the Limpopo and Vaal Rivers. South Africa is famous for its sunshine – an average of 2,500 hours of sun every year. Orographic rain is formed when moist winds are forced up the side of a mountain. Zaire/Congo air otherwise known as the South West Trade Winds. These cold fronts bring days of soft rains, but the average annual rainfall in these areas is low. 2 2. With several other parts on the interior not receiving an adequate amount of rainfall and thus prone to droughts. Crossref. Summer rainfall areas are subdivided as having early, middle, late or very late summer rainfall. The climate of South Africa is determined by South Africa's situation between 22°S and 35°S, in the Southern Hemisphere's subtropical zone, and its location between two oceans, Atlantic and the Indian. The interior plateau, the eastern Free State, KwaZulu-Natal, Eastern Cape and Mpumalanga Provinces receive almost all its rain as thunderstorms (convective rains). Cold fronts approach the Western Cape from the west, and pass over the province towards the east. This is because air from the cold sea current do not hold most moisture and the coastal winds blow parallel to the mountains. The average annual rainfall for South Africa is about 464 mm (compared to a global average of 786 mm ) but large and unpredictable variations are common. In winter temperatures can drop below freezing, also due to altitude. Be able to interpret synoptic charts of South Africa with special reference to air movements, interpretation of station models and the dominant pattern of High Pressures that affect the climate. However, along the west coast of the Western Cape, as well as over the north-western parts of KwaZulu-Natal more than 125% of normal rainfall (reference period 1981—2010) was received. Also, in the deep Keiskamma River Valley, the average rainfall at Dank den Goewerneury is only 390 mm, but it is 500 mm at Middledrift, nearby but outside the deep valley. South Africa Phokele Maponya* and Sylvester Mpandeli Department of Environmental Sciences, University of South Africa, Pretoria 0002, South Africa.  Temperatures in the city are usually fairly mild due to the city's high altitude, with the average maximum daytime temperature in January of 26 °C (78.8 °F), dropping to an average maximum of around 16 °C (60.8 °F) in June. The map of average rainfall over Africa annually shows a similarity to the maps that show climatic regions. Rainfall Table; Water Level Table; Forecast & Warning . The aim of this study is to update the analysis of historical rainfall trends with reference to the work from previous studies, through optimizing the highest spatial resolution with the longest possible period of analysis, i.e., 1921–2015. The rainy season for most of the country is in the summer which is November through to March. This was done in citrus orchards in the Letsitele area during the severe drought of the 1980s. Credit: About South Africa (Department of Environmental Affairs and Tourism) Rainfall distribution of South Africa Credit: About South Africa (Department of Environmental Affairs and Tourism) Rainfall Distribution Map; Inundation Map. Public Document 6 WCS-CLS-CI-ACS-2018 Annual Climate Summary 2018 The possible role played by DDF during JFM … Vegetation tends to vary by climatic zone and these also correspond to the horticultural zones.. Rainfall Data for South Africa The initial daily and monthly rainfall datasets used in the study by Lynch (2004) were acquired fr om the erstwhile Computing Centre for Water Research (CCWR) early in 2000. Ocean-Atmosphere Global Climate Model The South African Weather Service (SAWS) is currently recognised by the World … The annual time series for each sector is shown in Fig. Climatic zones are often referred to by the seasonal pattern of rainfall. The average annual temperature is 18.7 °C | 65.6 °F in Louis … In-between there is a mid-summer drought. It has a wider variety of climates than most other countries in sub-Saharan Africa, and it has lower average temperatures than other countries within this range of latitude, like Australia, because much of the interior (central plateau or Highveld, including Johannesburg) of South Africa is at a higher elevation. Polokwane, Limpopo, South Africa - Monthly weather averages including average high and low Temperature, Precipitation, Pressure, Wind Charts to assist you in planning your travel, holiday or an outdoor activity at Polokwane, South Africa Most of South Africa is a summer rainfall area, November to March, while the Western Cape Province receives most of its rain during winter, May to August. This indicates the month when the summer rain peaks not when the summer rain starts. A good example of orographic rains can be seen in the Eastern Cape around Alice. For most of the country, rain falls mainly in the summer months with brief afternoon thunderstorms. Search for more papers by this author. ... while DDF over coastal northern Angola and central South Africa is correlated with SSTs in the Indian and Atlantic Oceans. Anti-transpirant sprays may limit water losses by transpiration.  In the winter months, snow collects on the high mountains of the Cape and the Drakensberg. The winds come from the Atlantic Ocean (west of Zimbabwe) towards Angola and Namibia and divert from Zambia to Zimbabwe. On 28 January, Mtwara (city) recorded 109.9mm of rain and Dar es Salaam 105.1mm and significant levels of rain co… As subtropical and polar regions of Rain falls from October to February and is often heavy, with the amount of precipitation increasing from west to east. Best time of the year to travel to South Africa depends on what you want to do. During winter it is warmest in the coastal regions, especially on the eastern Indian Ocean coast. South African Weather Service Prediction System 2.1. Abstract Total rainfall over Natal, South Africa is the composite of rainfall from a number of synoptic rainfall‐producing systems. … In extreme situations, trees can be cut back to reduce the leaf area and limit transpiration. South Africa's coasts are major tourist attractions and trade locations. These convective rains develop because all these areas have enough heat in summer. 2. Just like many other parts of the world, climate research showed that the real challenge in South Africa was more related to environmental issues more than developmental ones. For most of the country, rain falls mainly in the summer months with brief afternoon thunderstorms. South Africa has typical weather for the Southern Hemisphere, with the coldest days in June–August. for the rest of South Africa. The Indian and Atlantic oceans meet at the southwestern tip of South Africa. In this study, the objective was to estimate the precipitation intensities and their uncertainties (lower and upper limits) for durations of 0.125, 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, 4 and 6 h and return periods of 2, 10, 25, 50 and 100 years in the Ghaap plateau, Northern Cape Province, South Africa using the Generalized Extreme Value (GEV) distribution. These hot valleys have a much lower rainfall than the plateau areas between them. Evidence shows that extreme weather events are becoming more prominent due to climate change. At least 400 people have been displaced in Dodoma municipality after 70 houses were destroyed or damaged after heavy rain between 17 and 18 January 2016. A subtropical location, moderated by ocean on three sides of the country and the altitude of the interior plateau, account for the warm temperate conditions. AfriWX.co.za is one of Southern Africa's busiest mobile weather web sites with well … - Effect of interior plateau on South Africa’s weather - Winter rainfall over South Western Cape. The exception is the Western Cape and its capital city Cape Town where the climate is Mediterranean and it rains more in the wintertime. In winter, there is much less rainfall than in summer. The world average is about 860mm. South Africa experiences a high degree of sunshine with rainfall about half of the global average, increasing from west to east, and with semi-desert regions in the north-west. Unlike Africa's equatorial countries, where the year is split into rainy and dry seasons, South Africa does have four seasons—summer, fall, winter, and spring—only they are flipped from the seasons in the Northern Hemisphere.Summer lasts from December to February, and fall stretches about March … In this area, annual precipitation drops below 350 mm (13.5 in), but in a wide west-central area, where the southern part of the Namib Desert is found, it drops even below 200 mm (8 in). Climate and specifically rainfall amount is the chief determinant of type and distribution of the ecoregions of … The Highveld is the eastern plateau area of South Africa. The north and west of the city has undulating hills while the eastern parts are flatter. South Africa is a relatively dry country, with an average annual rainfall of about 464 mm. Despite a projected decline in rainfall in Southern Africa (IPCC, 2007), existing statistics reveal that the valley received mean annual rainfall of 1292.75 mm (standard dev. Some regions experience no rainfall in the driest year and received hundreds of millimeters of rainfall in the wettest year. It’s a dry country, classified as semi-arid. Rainfall generally occurs during summer (November through March), although in the southwest, around Cape Town, rainfall occurs in winter (June to August). The arid regions are in the north-west, with the driest areas being the north-west coast. The temperature occasionally drops to below freezing at night, causing frost. These may be expensive and have negative side effects, such as reducing photosynthesis. Change of rainfall distribution and circulation patterns over Southern Africa in summer. Farmers must have contingency plans and strategies in place to limit losses and damage to crops during periods of limited water supply. South Africa is a sunny country, averaging 8–10 daily sunshine hours in most regions. Further analysis indicates that a connection between the Botswana high and rainfall over southern Africa not only exists during ENSO years, but is also apparent during neutral years that display ENSO-like characteristics in the Botswana high. ... Hans-Juergen Panitz, Ruth Cerezo-Mota, Spatial distribution of precipitation annual cycles over South Africa in 10 CORDEX regional climate model present-day simulations, Climate Dynamics, …  South Africa contributes considerable CO2 emissions, being the 14th largest emitter of CO2. The South African Weather Service will continue to monitor and provide updates on any future assessments that may provide more clarity on the current expectations for the coming seasons. Results and discussion 3.1Rainfall variability. The summer and winter rainfall region is the Eastern Cape. The Cape of South Africa is a region of winter rains and other sectors further east along the coast tend to experience a bimodal rainfall distribution, similar to what occurs in equatorial regions. The dam on Craigdoone farm, one of the contributors of rainfall data. The former central business district is found on the south side of the prominent ridge called the Witwatersrand and the terrain falls to the north and south. In addition to the above winds there are ocean currents in Southern Africa that affect bot weather and climate as well as human … This region is characterized by rainfall throughout the year, but it is heaviest in summer. The average annual rainfall for the whole of South Africa is about 464 mm. The west coast of South Africa is affected by the Benguela Current, which cools the sea and makes the climate arid, since it inhibits the formation of vertical air currents that could condense. With the satellite images of South Africa , you can see where the sun shines and where it is cloudy. The summer rainfall region is the largest, being most of the country north of the coastal areas and the north west arid desert. Snow is a rare occurrence, with snowfall having been experienced in May 1956, August 1962, June 1964, September 1981, August 2006 (light), on 27 June 2007, accumulating up to 10 centimetres (3.9 in) in the southern suburbs, and most recently on 7 August 2012. Weather at Your Fingertips - The Ultimate Weather Resource for South Africa. Overall, rainfall is greatest in the east and gradually decreases westward, with some semi-desert areas along the western edge of South Africa. This location is classified as Cwb by Köppen and Geiger. 1a. South Africa is a relatively dry country and is well known for its sunshine. The winter rains of the south-western and southern Cape are brought by cyclones or cold fronts. AfriWX SA Weather (WX) Forecasts, Rainfall and Storm Reports for South Africa. the southern interior of South Africa, and indications o f decreases in rainfall in the far northern and north-eastern parts. Most of South Africa is a summer rainfall area, November to March, while the Western Cape Province receives most of its rain during winter, May to August.  This is in large part due to its energy system relying heavily on coal and oil. Over most of South Africa, there is a definite rainfall pattern with rainfall increasing from west to east. The climate of Zambia in Central and Southern Africa is definitely tropical modified by altitude (elevation).In the Köppen climate classification, most of the country is classified as humid subtropical or tropical wet and dry, with small patches of semi-arid steppe climate in the south-west.. = 787.929) during the period under review. In general South Africa received near-normal to below-normal rainfall during 2018. The effect of ocean temperatures and currents has a maritime … The exception is the Wester… J. J. Taljaard. Overgauw Wine Estate contributed 63 years’ rainfall data (1949-2012). The average yearly at Alice in the foothills of the Amatola Mountains is about 500 mm, but at Wolfridge in the mountains, the yearly rainfall is about 1 700 mm. , The various effects of climate change on rural communities are expected to include: drought, depletion of water resources and biodiversity, soil erosion, decreased subsistence economies and cessation of cultural activities. , Africa is currently and prospectively suffering from significant heat waves based on the nature of the continent amid the current environmental crisis. A major reason for the low rainfall is that the moist air comes from a cold ocean, which results in low evaporation levels. While the Western Cape has a Mediterranean climate with winter rainfall, most of the country experiences summer rain. Johannesburg enjoys a dry, sunny climate, with the exception of occasional late afternoon downpours in the summer months of October to April. In the western part of South Africa, the rainfall is low because there is not enough moisture in the atmosphere for convective rains. The winter rainfall region is confined to a relatively small area in the south-west, the Western Cape area, where gentle rain falls from May to August but the summers are dry.  Above the global average, South Africa had 9.5 tons of CO2 emissions per capita in 2015. In South Africa, south of KwaZulu-Natal, the winter rainfall is more pronounced, and the temperatures are a little lower than in the north. Dry Period Bulletin; Extended Range (1-15 Days) Flow Forecast (Experimental ) Special Outlook; Map. Agriculture, one of the main industries in South Africa, is highly exposed to climate change. Mpumalanga is a city with a significant rainfall. , CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (, "GPCC's new land surface precipitation climatology based on quality-controlled in situ data and its role in quantifying the global water cycle", "Johannesburg & Gauteng Weather and Climate", "Joburg covered by snow as temperature drops", "World Map of the Köppen-Geiger climate classification updated", https://www.environment.gov.za/sites/default/files/docs/nationalclimatechange_adaptationstrategy_ue10november2019.pdf, "Impacts of and Adaptation to Climate Change", "International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health", "Climate change in Africa: costs of mitigating heat stress", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Climate_of_South_Africa&oldid=993504710, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 10 December 2020, at 23:32. In the Sundays River Valley, the annual rainfall at Addo is only about 390 mm, and the highest temperature in South Africa was recorded at Kirkwood, 55ºC. Louis Trichardt Climate (South Africa) >>Louis Trichardt Weather by month // weather averages ... Louis Trichardt climate summary The Louis Trichardt lies on 990m above sea level The climate in Louis Trichardt is warm and temperate. - Coastal low - Berg winds Summer Weather Conditions: A. In June 2012, an article was published in Landbouweekblad requesting farmers to submit their rainfall records to SAEON. Although generalizing South Africa's weather is difficult, there are a few absolutes that apply throughout the country. In short, this warm moist air rises, cools down, then condensates and precipitates as thunderstorms. The distribution of rainfall stations collected by Lynch (2004) for the rainfall database, including stations in nei ghbouring countries, is shown in Figure 2.2.1. On the central plateau, which includes the Free State and Gauteng provinces, the altitude keeps the average temperatures below 20 °C (68 °F); Johannesburg, for example, lies at 1,753 metres (5,751 ft). The orographic rains of the mountain areas are extremely important for irrigation in arid farming regions sometimes hundreds of kilometres away. This article investigated the reasons for changes in rainfall over the years. Other mountains with high rainfall include the Outeniqua Mountain, mountains of the South-western Cape and the Winterberg and Amatola Mountains, in the central parts of the Eastern Cape. Also, there is no significant orographic rain effect in the mountains along the western escarpment. South Africa experiences hotter and drier weather during the El Niño phase, while La Niña brings cooler and wetter conditions. South Africa Online (Pty) Ltd. SouthAfrica.co.za. Two interlinked datasets, namely the district rainfall and individual rainfall stations datasets were used for the trend analyses, namely, daily time series of 60 individual rainfall … Most of the country has warm, sunny days and cool nights. The warm Agulhas Current runs south along the east coast and the cold Benguela Current flows north along the western shore. Winter temperatures may reach the freezing point at high altitude, but are at their most mild in coastal regions, particularly KwaZulu Natal Province and perhaps the Eastern Cape. Infrequent showers occur through the course of the winter months. 4 .  As a result, there is at least a 6 °C difference in the annual temperatures of Durban (on the east) and Port Nolloth (on the west) despite being located at roughly the same latitude.  The average annual rainfall for South Africa is about 464 mm (compared to a global average of 786 mm) but large and unpredictable variations are common. 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