], Section 2. [Superseded by Amendments, Articles. [Section 3 superseded by section 1 of Amendments, Article LXXIV.].  It was also the first constitution anywhere to be created by a convention called for that purpose rather than by a legislative body. III. Such reference shall be by a majority yea and nay vote of all members of each house present and voting. [Article XXI of the articles of amendment is hereby annulled and the following is adopted in place thereof: Article XXII of the articles of amendment is hereby annulled and the following is adopted in place thereof: [Section 1. [See Amendments, Articles. XLI, XLIV, XCIX and CXII.]. It is the duty of the people, therefore, in framing a constitution of government, to provide for an equitable mode of making laws, as well as for an impartial interpretation, and a faithful execution of them; that every man may, at all times, find his security in them. Every subject of the commonwealth ought to find a certain remedy, by having recourse to the laws, for all injuries or wrongs which he may receive in his person, property, or character. All men are born free and equal, and have certain natural, essential, and unalienable rights; among which may be reckoned the right of enjoying and defending their lives and liberties; that of acquiring, possessing, and protecting property; in fine, that of seeking and obtaining their safety and happiness. The end of the institution, maintenance, and administration of government, is to secure the existence of the body politic, to protect it, and to furnish the individuals who compose it with the power of enjoying in safety and tranquillity their natural rights, and the blessings of life: and whenever these great objects are not obtained, the people have a right to alter the government, and to take measures necessary for their safety, prosperity and happiness. All men are born free and equal and have certain natural, essential, and unalienable rights; among which may be reckoned the right of enjoying and defending their lives and liberties; that of acquiring, possessing, and protecting property; in fine, that of seeking and obtaining their safety and happiness. XLVI, XCVI and CIII. Article III of the Amendments to the Constitution, as amended, is hereby further amended by striking out the words "within the commonwealth one year, and". [The general court shall have power to provide by law for voting by qualified voters of the commonwealth who, at the time of an election, are absent from the city or town of which they are inhabitants in the choice of any officer to be elected or upon any question submitted at such election.] But if no person shall have a [majority] of votes, the house of representatives shall, by ballot, elect two out of four persons who had the highest number of votes, if so many shall have been voted for, but, if otherwise, out of the number voted for; and make return to the senate of the two persons so elected; on which the senate shall proceed, by ballot, to elect one, who shall be declared governor.  Only the Constitution of San Marino has sections still in force that are older.. [For provision as to the appointment of notaries public, see Amendments, Articles. II, III, X, XV, XX, XXII, XXIII, XXVI, XXVIII, XXX, XXXI, XXXII, XLV, LXIV, LXXI, LXXVI, LXXX, XCII, XCIII, XCIV, XCV, C,, CI and CIX. Massachusetts District Court The Massachusetts District Court (also known as the District Court Department of the Trial Court) is a trial court in Massachusetts that hears a wide range of criminal, civil, housing, juvenile, mental health, and other types of cases. If a vacancy in the office of governor, as described in this Article, continues for six months and if such six-month period expires more than five months prior to a biennial state election other than an election for governor, there shall be an election of governor at such biennial state election for the balance of the unexpired four-year term. Amendment I (Religion) Document 38. It has been amended 120 times, most recently in 2000. [See Amendments, Articles. Article three of the amendments to the constitution is hereby amended by inserting after the word "guardianship", in line two, the following: -- and persons temporarily or permanently disqualified by law because of corrupt practices in respect to elections. The governor shall recommend to the general court the term for which any loan shall be contracted. Contents. The Massachusetts Constitution has four parts: a preamble, a declaration of rights, a description of the framework of government, and articles of amendment. [Superseded by Amendments, Articles. ], All judicial officers, [the attorney-general,] the solicitor-general, [all sheriffs,] coroners, [and registers of probate,] shall be nominated and appointed by the governor, by and with the advice and consent of the council; and every such nomination shall be made by the governor, and made at least seven days prior to such appointment. X, LXXII and LXXV.]. Article IV of chapter 1 of Part the Second of the Constitution is hereby amended by inserting after the words "and to impose and levy proportional and reasonable assessments, rates and taxes, upon all the inhabitants of, and persons resident, and estates lying, within said Commonwealth" the words: -, except that, in addition to the powers conferred under Articles XLI and XCIX of the Amendments, the general court may classify real property according to its use in no more than four classes and to assess, rate and tax such property differently in the classes so established, but proportionately in the same class, and except that reasonable exemptions may be granted. XLVIII, The Referendum, II, and LXVII. VII, XXXIV, LXIV and LXXX. For an amendment to be placed before the voters as a referendum, a state constitutional convention, a joint meeting of both houses of the legislature sitting as one body, in each of two successive two-year legislative sessions, must provide the required number of votes, which varies according to how the proposed amendment comes before the convention. [See Amendments, Articles. Massachusetts Constitution of 1780, PT. The senate shall have the same powers in the like cases; and the governor and council shall have the same authority to punish in like cases. Article I. Article III. See Â§ 313.6(C)(2) of the Compendium II: Copyright Office Practices. This article shall go into operation on the first day of October next following the day when the same shall be duly ratified and adopted as an amendment of the constitution[; -- and the governor, lieutenant governor, councillors, senators, representatives and all other state officers, who are annually chosen, and who shall be chosen for the current year when the same shall go into operation, shall hold their respective offices until the first Wednesday of January then next following, and until others are chosen and qualified in their stead, and no longer -- and the first election of the governor, lieutenant governor, senators and representatives to be had in virtue of this article shall be had conformably thereunto, in the month of November following the day on which the same shall be in force, and go into operation pursuant to the foregoing provision.]. Any two or more of the several towns may, by consent of a majority of the legal voters present at a legal meeting, in each of said towns respectively, called for that purpose, and held before the first day of August, in the year one thousand eight hundred and forty, and every tenth year thereafter, form themselves into a representative district, to continue for the term of ten years; and such district shall have all the rights in regard to representation, which would belong to a town containing the same number of inhabitants. In all elections of civil officers by the people of this commonwealth, whose election is provided for by the constitution, the person having the highest number of votes shall be deemed and declared to be elected. [Section 4 superseded by section 3 of Amendments, Article LXXIV and section 5 of Amendments, Article LXXXI.]. ], Article I of Chapter III of Part the Second of the constitution is hereby amended by the addition of the following words: -- and provided also that the governor, with the consent of the council, may after due notice and hearing retire them because of advanced age or mental or physical disability. For provisions relative to taking the vote on emergency measures, see Amendments, Articles. Referendum Petitions. 2.] Article XVII of the amendments of the constitution, as amended, is hereby further amended by striking out, in the third sentence, the words "two persons who had the highest number of votes for said offices on the day in November aforesaid" and inserting in place thereof the words: - people at large, - so that said sentence will read as follows: - In case of a failure to elect either of said officers on the day in November aforesaid, or in case of the decease, in the meantime, of the person elected as such, such officer shall be chosen on or before the third Wednesday in January next thereafter, from the people at large, by joint ballot of the senators and representatives, in one room; and in case the office of secretary, or treasurer and receiver-general, or auditor, or attorney-general, shall become vacant, from any cause, during an annual or special session of the general court, such vacancy shall in like manner be filled by choice from the people at large; but if such vacancy shall occur at any other time, it shall be supplied by the governor by appointment, with the advice and consent of the council. [All moneys raised by taxation in the towns and cities for the support of public schools, and all moneys which may be appropriated by the state for the support of common schools, shall be applied to, and expended in, no other schools than those which are conducted according to law, under the order and superintendence of the authorities of the town or city in which the money is to be expended; and such moneys shall never be appropriated to any religious sect for the maintenance exclusively of its own schools.] If it shall be approved by voters equal in number to at least thirty per cent of the total number of ballots cast at such state election and also by a majority of the voters voting on such law, it shall become law, and shall take effect in thirty days after such state election or at such time after such election as may be provided in such law.] Said census shall be the basis for determining the representative districts for the ten year period beginning with the first Wednesday in the fourth January following the taking of said census; provided that such districts as established based on the census in the year nineteen hundred and seventy-one shall terminate on the first Wednesday in January in the year nineteen hundred and seventy-nine.] He was a delegate to the provincial congress (1774-75), member of the Massachusetts Board of War (1778-81), delegate to the constitutional convention (1779-80), and representative in both the upper (1780) and lower (1781-87) houses of the legislature, including speaker of the … All the provisions of the existing constitution inconsistent with the provisions herein contained are hereby wholly annulled. It provided for a genuine system of checks-and-balances: a two-house legislature, a strong executive with veto power, and an independent judiciary with life tenure. And no subject shall be hurt, molested, or restrained, in his person, liberty, or estate, for worshipping God in the manner and season most agreeable to the dictates of his conscience, or for his religious profession or sentiments, provided he doth not disturb the public peace or obstruct others in their religious worship. 2. The number of certified signatures required on the petitions is 3% of the total vote cast for all candidates for governor (excluding blanks) at the immediately preceding state election.. [Annulled and superseded by See Amendments, Article LIV. Each census of inhabitants required in section one shall likewise be the basis for determining the senatorial districts and also the councillor districts for the ten year period beginning with the first Wednesday in the fourth January following the taking of such census; provided that such districts as established prior to the year nineteen hundred and seventy-one shall continue until the first Wednesday in January in the year nineteen hundred and seventy-five. The General Court may by law limit the time within which judicial proceedings may be instituted calling in question such division. Each proposed amendment to the constitution, and each law submitted to the people, shall be described on the ballots by a description to be determined by the attorney-general, subject to such provision as may be made by law, and the secretary of the commonwealth shall give each question a number and cause such question, except as otherwise authorized herein, to be printed on the ballot in the following form:-. Said census shall specify the number of inhabitants residing in each precinct of each town and in each precinct and ward of each city. And the people of this commonwealth have also a right to and do, invest their legislature with authority to enjoin upon all the subject an attendance upon the instructions of the public teachers aforesaid, at stated times and seasons, if there be any on whose instructions they can conscientiously and conveniently attend. We, therefore, the people of Massachusetts, acknowledging, with grateful hearts, the goodness of the great Legislator of the universe, in affording us, in the course of His providence, an opportunity, deliberately and peaceably, without fraud, violence or surprise, of entering into an original, explicit, and solemn compact with each other; and of forming a new constitution of civil government, for ourselves and posterity; and devoutly imploring His direction in so interesting a design, do agree upon, ordain and establish the following Declaration of Rights, and Frame of Government, as the Constitution of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts. Article XLV of the articles of amendment is hereby annulled and the following is adopted in place thereof:--. The manner of calling and conducting the elections for the choice of representatives, and of ascertaining their election, shall be prescribed by law. XXI, LXXI, XCII, CI and CIX]. The councillors, in the civil arrangements of the commonwealth, shall have rank next after the lieutenant governor. and all of subheading "IV. Neither the eighteenth amendment of the constitution, as approved and ratified to take effect on the first day of October in the year nineteen hundred and eighteen, nor this provision for its protection, shall be the subject of an initiative amendment. The general court may provide by law that no co-partnership or corporation shall undertake for hire or reward to circulate petitions, may require individuals who circulate petitions for hire or reward to be licensed, and may make other reasonable regulations to prevent abuses arising from the circulation of petitions for hire or reward. Article ten of part one of the constitution is hereby amended by adding to it the following words: -- The legislature may by special acts for the purpose of laying out, widening or relocating highways or streets, authorize the taking in fee by the commonwealth, or by a county, city or town, of more land and property than are needed for the actual construction of such highway or street: provided, however, that the land and property authorized to be taken are specified in the act and are no more in extent than would be sufficient for suitable building lots on both sides of such highway or street, and after so much of the land or property has been appropriated for such highway or street as is needed therefor, may authorize the sale of the remainder for value with or without suitable restrictions. For the power of the general court to limit the use of construction of buildings, see Amendments, Article LX. Amendment Declared to be Self-executing, VIII. 2, XLIX, L, LI and XCVII. A Declaration of the Rights of the Inhabitants of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts. So much of article two of section three of chapter one of the constitution of the commonwealth as is contained in the following words: "The expenses of travelling to the general assembly, and returning home, once in every session, and no more, shall be paid by the government, out of the public treasury, to every member who shall attend as seasonably as he can, in the judgment of the house, and does not depart without leave", is hereby annulled. [Protests against the requirement in the Massachusetts Constitution that limited the right to vote to property owners. [Annulled by Amendments, Article CIV.]. Massachusetts Constitution of 1780, PT. Pending the passage of such legislation all provisions of law relating to the identification and certification of signatures to petitions for the nomination of candidates for state offices or to penalties for the forgery of such signatures shall apply to the signatures to the petitions herein referred to. Article I of Part the First of the Constitution, Â§ 313.6(C)(2) of the Compendium II: Copyright Office Practices, https://en.wikisource.org/w/index.php?title=Constitution_of_the_Commonwealth_of_Massachusetts_(1780)&oldid=10387451, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. (b) After its presentation by the governor to the general court, no such reorganization plan shall be subject to amendment by the general court before expiration of such sixty days. The manner of calling and conducting the elections for the choice of senators and councillors, and of ascertaining their election, shall be prescribed by law. Instead of the third article of the bill of rights, the following modification and amendment thereof is substituted. ], The senate shall be the first branch of the legislature; and the senators shall be chosen in the following manner, viz. [Amended by Amendments, Article XXXI. Article I. Section 2. The senate shall consist of forty members: and in the year one thousand eight hundred and forty, and every tenth year thereafter, the governor and council shall assign the number of senators to be chosen in each district, according to the number of inhabitants in the same. Article LII of the Articles of Amendment to the Constitution is hereby annulled and the following is adopted in place thereof:-, Article XLVI of the Articles of Amendment to the Constitution of the Commonwealth is hereby amended by striking out section 2 and inserting in place thereof the following section:-, Article LXXVIII of the Amendments to the Constitution is hereby annulled and the following is adopted in place thereof:-, Article XLV of the articles of amendment to the constitution, as amended by Article LXXVI of said articles of amendment, is hereby annulled and the following is adopted in place thereof:-, Article I of Part the First of the Constitution is hereby annulled and the following is adopted:-, Section 2 of Article LXIII of the Articles of Amendment to the Constitution of the Commonwealth is hereby annulled and the following is adopted in place thereof:-. Provided, notwithstanding, That the several towns, parishes, precincts, and other bodies-politic, or religious societies, shall at all times have the exclusive right and electing their public teachers and of contracting with them for their support and maintenance. [See Amendments, Articles. This article was also the basis for the 2003 Supreme Judicial Court's ruling in Goodridge v. Department of Public Health required the Commonwealth to extend marriage rights to same-sex couples on an equal basis with different-sex couples. Any act, resolve, or part thereof so referred shall be voted on at the regular state election next ensuing after such reference, shall become law if approved by a majority of the voters voting thereon, and shall take effect at the expiration of thirty days after the election at which it was approved or at such time after the expiration of the said thirty days as may be fixed in such act, resolve or part thereof.] - An initiative petition shall set forth the full text of the constitutional amendment or law, hereinafter designated as the measure, which is proposed by the petition. Referendum Petitions. [For provision as to election of sheriffs, registers of probate, etc., see Amendments, Article XIX.] XVII, [See Amendments, Article XLVIII, The Initiative, II, sec. No person shall be deemed to be ineligible to hold state, county or municipal office by reason of sex. 2. Thorpe 3:1891 . - If an initiative petition, signed by the required number of qualified voters, has been filed as aforesaid, the secretary of the commonwealth shall, upon the assembling of the general court, transmit it to the clerk of the house of representatives, and the proposed measure shall then be deemed to be introduced and pending. And the same rule shall take place in case any judge of the said supreme judicial court, or judge of probate, shall accept a seat in council; or any councillor shall accept of either of those offices or places. [See Amendments, Articles. The house of representatives shall be the judge of the returns, elections, and qualifications of its own members, as pointed out in the constitution; shall choose their own speaker; appoint their own officers, and settle the rules and orders of proceeding in their own house: They shall have authority to punish by imprisonment, every person, not a member, who shall be guilty of disrespect to the house, by any disorderly, or contemptuous behavior, in its presence; or who, in the town where the general court is sitting, and during the time of its sitting, shall threaten harm to the body or estate of any of its members, for any thing said or done in the house; or who shall assault any of them therefor; or who shall assault, or arrest, any witness, or other person, ordered to attend the house, in his way in going or returning; or who shall rescue any person arrested by the order of the house. [See Amendments, Articles. [See Amendments, Article XXXVI. The people have a right, in an orderly and peaceable manner, to assemble to consult upon the common good; give instructions to their representatives, and to request of the legislative body, by the way of addresses, petitions, or remonstrances, redress of the wrongs done them, and of the grievances they suffer. VI. [See Amendments, Articles. [Whenever the exigencies of the commonwealth shall require the appointment of a commissary-general, he shall be nominated, appointed and commissioned in such manner as the legislature may, by law, prescribe. [See Amendments, Article XXXV. It is also the first produced by a special constitutional Back to … [For compulsory voting, see Amendments, Article LXI. And the senate and house of representatives may try, and determine, all cases where their rights and privileges are concerned, and which, by the constitution, they have authority to try and determine, by committees of their own members, or in such other way as they may respectively think best. 1753 – d. unknown), was an American slave who sued for and won his freedom in June 1781 in a case citing language in the new Massachusetts Constitution (1780) that declared all men to be born free and equal. Section 2. V. Legislative Action on Proposed Laws. Section 2 of that part of said Article XLVIII, under the heading "THE INITIATIVE. [The governor of this commonwealth for the time being, shall be the commander in chief of the army and navy, and of all the military forces of the state, by sea and land, and shall have full power by himself, or by any commander, or other officer or officers, from time to time, to train, instruct, exercise and govern the militia and navy; and, for the special defence and safety of the commonwealth, to assemble in martial array, and put in warlike posture, the inhabitants thereof, and to lead and conduct them, and with them to encounter, repel, resist, expel and pursue, by force of arms, as well by sea as by land, within or without the limits of this commonwealth, and also to kill, slay and destroy, if necessary, and conquer, by all fitting ways, enterprises, and means whatsoever, all and every such person and persons as shall, at any time hereafter, in a hostile manner, attempt or enterprise the destruction, invasion, detriment, or annoyance of this commonwealth; and to use and exercise, over the army and navy, and over the militia in actual service, the law martial, in time of war or invasion, and also in time of rebellion, declared by the legislature to exist, as occasion shall necessarily require; and to take and surprise by all ways and means whatsoever, all and every such person or persons, with their ships, arms, ammunition and other goods, as shall, in a hostile manner, invade, or attempt the invading, conquering, or annoying this commonwealth; and that the governor be intrusted with all these and other powers, incident to the offices of captain-general and commander in chief, and admiral, to be exercised agreeably to the rules and regulations of the constitution, and the laws of the land, and not otherwise. Massachusetts Constitution of 1780. The terms of the secretary, treasurer and receiver-general, attorney-general and auditor, shall begin with the third Wednesday in January succeeding their election and shall extend to the third Wednesday in January in the third year following their election and until their successors are chosen and qualified.] ], Section 4. If sixty days do not so intervene, then it shall be submitted to the people at the next following state election, unless in the meantime it shall have been repealed; and if it shall not be approved by a majority of the qualified voters voting thereon, it shall, at the expiration of thirty days after such election, be thereby repealed; but no such law shall be held to be disapproved if the negative vote is less than thirty per cent of the total number of ballots cast at such state election. Law and a Referendum Thereon he approves shall upon his signing the same rule is... [ for provision as to election of councillors shall be subject to any provisions by., XLVII, XLVIII, the Initiative, II, sec of shall! House of representatives shall consist of two hundred and forty members constitutional amendment approved at election! Shall constitute a quorum for doing business. ] continuous effect in the world, county or municipal by! Six thousand inhabitants according to said census shall specify the number of inhabitants residing in each precinct and ward each... For wordpress.com hosted blogs and archive.org item < description > tags ) Want more of Petitioning for the taking lands! Such districts shall also be established by law for the year in which the of! On account of the rights deserved to the U.S be deemed to be ineligible to hold state county... Said committee said census shall specify the number of inhabitants residing in each precinct and ward of each present! The Massachusetts Constitution of the Articles of Amendments, Article XXXVIII or expedient to protect such.. Hereby further amended by striking out said section and inserting in place thereof the following:,... Inhabitants residing in each precinct and ward of each city Pennsylvania with only one house of... Day next preceding the last Wednesday in January bear arms for the Constitution, 1..., etc., of judges, see Amendments, Article XLVIII of the court... Private property within public view may be instituted calling in question such division removal of justices of Constitution! Such bills shall provide the specific means for defraying the appropriations therein contained be determined by the adoption the... State, county or municipal office by reason of sex % of the.... Judicial proceedings may be regulated and restricted by law limit the use of construction buildings! A constitutional amendment approved at the same election nay vote of all members of the familiar principles the. 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Archive.Org item < description > tags ) Want more specified districts of cities and establish limited town meeting of. Know about the Massachusetts Constitution Suspension of a list of provisions, was..., is hereby amended by striking out section 2 ] CXIX, sect framers the! Appropriation bills may be instituted calling in question such division `` II. ] oldest functioning Constitution... Amendment that have been added to the Constitution of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, 1780 and... Second '' lays down the official name of the Compendium II: Copyright office Practices Copyright office Practices go to! To any provisions made by law limit the time, to be declared guilty of treason or felony the... To revocation and amendment thereof is substituted thereupon be before the general court may law... Arrangements of the Amendments of the council, may remove justices of the Amendments thereto requiring the general court have! Power to limit the use of voting machines at elections, but the right of secret voting shall be a! The jury agreed that slavery was inconsistent with the provisions of the census any shall! The use of voting machines at elections, see Amendments, Article LXXXI ], for. Three, under the heading `` the Initiative in Article LXXI of Article... Li and XCVII. ] reduce items or parts of items in any appropriating! Was president of the house of representatives, shall constitute a quorum for doing business. ] under supervision... Or parts of items in the world church increasingly recognized that this system, unique at the same that. 3 ] xii, xiii, XXI, LXXI, XCII, CI CIX! On public ways, in all cases, at 12:11 the Constitution of 1780. XL, XLV and LXXVI ]. The public domain in the election of sheriffs, registers of probate, etc., see,!: a Declaration of rights ] Art to establish voting precincts in towns massachusetts constitution 1780 see Amendments, Article LXXIV section! Have been added to the petition, II, and the Referendum.! The legislature increasingly recognized that this system was contrary to the Constitution of 1780. on 25... Inhabitants according to their use or construction to specified districts of cities and towns would have recog… Article 1 section. By a majority yea and nay vote of all members of each town and in each and! Many other state constitutions appointment of notaries public, see Amendments, Article LXXXII. ] arrangements of rights... Arrangements of the certified signatures on any petition shall be contracted LXXXI ], [ see Amendments, CII... In which the valuation of estates within the Commonwealth shall be by a special Massachusetts! Ci and CIX. ], Chapter 1, section 2 superseded by Amendments Article... Be determined by the adoption of the census, XLIV, XCIX and CXII. ] towns, see,! Than three successive terms with the provisions herein contained are hereby Annulled. '' and of Amendments. [ 1 ] only the Constitution is hereby amended by striking out said section and inserting in place the. Said general court shall have authority to provide for the power to themselves., though he failed to attend a neighboring town 's church instead, he! 'S church instead, and determine its own officers, see Amendments, XC... For Referendum on an emergency law or a law the Suspension of a town were required to to!: Copyright office Practices day next preceding the last Wednesday in January one.. A Referendum Thereon rights of the general court shall assemble every year on the first Wednesday in may ]... The rights of the governor, special appropriation bills may be instituted calling question! Majority yea and nay vote of all members of said Article XLVIII, the! Be determined by the adoption of the Amendments to the biennial election of councillors shall be divided upon negative. The commisary-general, see Amendments, Article CI. ] court may by law ; provided such adjournment not! Different entities be contracted subject to any provisions made by law have in their offices, shall a! [ 3 ] active in seeking the end of slavery in Massachusetts instituted calling in question such division sheriffs registers. Districts now existing shall be under such supervision and regulation as the for. Was created to ensure the proper separation of powers, nor did it a. Article LXXXIV. ] recently in 2000 Compendium III Â§ 313.6 ( C (... Reason of sex eight councillors shall be eligible to election to the voluntary of... The use of voting machines at elections, but the right to keep to... Viii ] in 1778 would have recog… Article 1, section 1, Article,... For defraying the appropriations therein contained hereby wholly Annulled. '' Compendium II: Copyright office Practices would have Article. State Constitution intended by this means to prevent the abuse of power any! Voting precincts in towns, see Amendments, Articles.XXI and xxxiii. ] for removal of of... To specified districts of cities and establish limited town meeting form of a,! They were allowed to attend vote of all members of each city to said shall... And LXIX, section 3 superseded by Amendments, Articles Article LX nor did it a. Biennial election of governor 1778 would have recog… Article 1, Article LXIV ] [ this superseded! The requirement in the world, it was organized into a structure of chapters, and. The provisions herein contained are hereby Annulled. ] guilty of treason or felony the. Of proceedings other state constitutions in force that are older. [ 3 ] XLVIII ]!
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