The Buddha has in clear terms outlined the theory of state- its principle and organizations for the maintenance of social welfare, law and order. The Buddha, indeed, was the first man to have envisaged the basic concepts of social living and human relationships. One should rather think, “For the welfare of all sentient beings, I must attain Buddhahood, and for attaining Buddhahood, by aiming at accumulating multitude of causes for attaining Buddhahood, I’ll recite A Praise to Twenty-one Taras”. According to the Sravakayana School, social practices may be grouped into two: one group of practices common to the laity, and another group for monks who have renounced worldly pleasures. The Buddha, indeed, was the first man to have envisaged the basic concepts of social living and human relationships. Under monarchical governments, too, the people enjoyed full democratic privileges. Nazi Germany is an extreme example of the consequences of the positivist way of thinking. In the eight wheels the Buddha warns the head of the state to always recollect his position, his early life, and the conditions of his birth, childhood and education in consonance with his experience about men and matters in the state. We rely significantly on advertising and newsstand sales to support our work â both of which have dropped precipitously this year. The fact is that these misconceptions are based on prejudiced beliefs and a disparaging study of Buddhism. Randeep Purewall is a lawyer and a writer. ECONOMY, LEADERSHIP AND JUDICIARY According to the sutra cited above, an unequal distribution of wealth and income among the family members and among owners and workers, the landholders and labourers, would be classed in the observance of wrong livelihood. This Buddhist theory of karma would also help explain how societies change over time. The separation between “self” and all that is not “self” creates resistances, conflict, tension, discord, and disharmony. His Eminence Prof. Samdhong Rinpoche was interviewed by Lobsang Wangyal of tibetsun.com, regarding Rinpoche’s views on electoral reforms etc. With this end in view, he laid down principles, which are well balanced and broad- based. If one recites in such a way, the merits from that would be immeasurable, continuously increasing and those merits would not become finished, would not to be lost, until attaining enlightenment.The motive, therefore, has to be with the presence of enlightenment mind, bodhicitta. If it was aimed for rebirth as a celestial or a human in the next life, then when the results, the merits, of that action ripen as such, they are finished at that. It has become a Dharma practice to be a cause for attaining liberation. As Gard points out, dharma concerns all beings, individual and collective, and a Buddhist political philosophy would interpret and expound the dharma socially. Buddha was not strictly a vegetarian, and was, overall, a pragmatic man. Get even more Buddhist wisdom delivered straight to your inbox! A manual of basic principles of monistic Shaiva doctrine and practice in the light of Pratyabhijnā philosophy by Abhinavagupta’s disciple Kshemarāja. If your mind is pure and calm, your wisdom will emerge. Shedding. Our emotions and attitudes affect how we feel. Buddhism is typically thought of as a religion, the fourth largest in the world, but the label is a bit misleading, especially to westerners used to Abrahamic faiths. The sutra devises methods of precaution against natural calamities and foreign attacks by providing remedial measures and instituting intelligence services. If not able to do so with each action, at least in the morning, when one has just got up if one were able to set one’s motive, thinking, “Whatever actions I’ll do in a day, today, I’ll do for attaining Buddhahood for sentient beings’ welfare”. The social perspectives can thus be summed up in six paramitas: 1. The Buddha was aware of the demerits which would follow the establishment of Bhiksuni sangha (order of nuns), but he sacrificed these for the sake of bringing about equality of man and woman, even in the order. However persons who are not industrious, shirk work, and unkind by nature, who do evil and are engaged in anti-social activities, should be punished according to their offence. Moreover, Buddhism aims to be a social and political philosophy that is democratic in its ethos. Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass, 1979. These are: (1) the citizens of the state should be considered like his own sons and daughters; (2) miscreants should be considered as patients: (3) suffers should be considered as objects of love and kindness; (4) well-off persons should be considered from the angle of rejoicement; (5) the enemy should be considered in such a way so as to eliminate the cause of enmity; (6) friend should be considered in such a way as to promote their genuine interest; (7) wealth should be considered as a medicine of life; and (8) the self should be considered from the angle of selflessness. In other words the Buddhists are afraid of adapting to a modern way of life. The Buddha enunciated that the absence of the state was tantamount to social disorder and it was thus incumbent upon the people to elect their administrator. Indian Philosophy (or, in Sanskrit, Darshanas), refers to any of several traditions of philosophical thought that originated in the Indian subcontinent, including Hindu philosophy, Buddhist philosophy, and Jain philosophy (see below for brief introductions to these schools). Leading a disciplined life can ensure that suffering is kept to a minimum. Fourth, a Buddhist political philosophy would have a distinctive conception of the human good and the means by which it would be attained. I would like to put forth the idea of a âBuddhist political philosophy.â A Buddhist political philosophy would mean thinking about government, state, power, and values (such as equality, freedom, and justice) from the point of view of Buddhist philosophy. The sutra also specifies in unmistakable terms how to eliminate unemployment and develop the country. In the ecclesiastical organisation if a single individual, in the jurisdiction of a particular sangha, did not turn up personally or surrendered his right to vote, no sangha-karma could be performed even if thousands of monks had assembled for that purpose. Slightly better than that would be to have the interest in liberation. It is in this way that real social harmony is practised in Buddhism which is generally ignored in political ideologies of our times. Buddhist philosophy refers to the philosophical investigations and systems of inquiry that developed among various Buddhist schools in India following the parinirvana (i.e. In doing a virtuous action, therefore, say, when making an offering, or when doing prostrations, or when doing a generosity, there would be a motive, thinking, “By this action there will be merits, and by the merits the ultimate goal would be achieved”, “I’ll engage in the virtuous action, there would be benefits in doing so”. Pranja translates to wisdom. From this opposition, arises resistance, conflict, and suffering (e.g. It has become better than that of small capable person’s. And so did temporal power grow side by side with Buddhism in Tibet in the time of Srong-tsen Gampo (Srong-btzan sGampo) Tri-song Deu-tsen (Khri-srong Ide-btzan) and Ralpachen, the three greatest kings of Tibet, who expanded their empires and also had rapid social and economic progress. Since the recitation was done aimed at all countless sentient beings of the three realms, in terms of the amount—‘great or small waves’—of the merits, they would be equal to the number of all sentient beings. The individual’s efforts for social well being are strengthened by the common bonds of the state. Thus it is an unique privilege of Buddhism that it cannot be compared with any “ism” or dogma depriving man of his individual rights. the ruler, government) is the source of all political authorityÂ without having to refer to any natural law that exists independently or above such authority. Most of the sutras in different yanas are replete with discussions and debates of the disciplines. When the Third Reich declared that it was legal to discriminate against German Jews, Germany disregarded whether the Jews were subject to any higher law such as the natural rights of a human being. Topics: Current Events, Donald Trump, Ethics and Morality, Karma, Philosophy, Politics & Society, Weâre glad to have you here. Hence, it believes more in … Taken as a whole, the importance of safeguarding the individual’s rights and the maintenance of social harmony in the Sarvastivada Vinaya conduct, from the layman’s ten to the monk’s 253 vinaya restrictions, is its focus on warding off violence. Iâd read Locke, Rousseau, and Mill during my undergraduate degree in Political Science, but what really commanded my attention during those years was Buddhist Philosophy. Wisdom is different from knowledge. It evinces that the Buddha greatly encouraged the right of speech and discussion in every field, and admitted criticisms without an unpleasant feeling. All societies and communities are subject to change, conditioned by many interdependent, interrelated factors. The second wheel of the state turns to the duties of the leader. Western scholars have long but mistakenly believed that Buddhism was antipolitical, but a careful examination of the primary texts reveals a rich and valuable political theory, based on three premises: that human beings are not selves, that politics is necessary but not very important, and that ethics is advice for living wisely but not a system of universal, obligatory rules. After Buddha's death, some of his followers had some differences of opinion which eventually led to their breaking away and forming separate kinds of Buddhism. Its jurisdiction would be enlarged worldwide without war or violence. 4. The wheel examples provide great motivation for good administration of the state. He should think thoroughly upon the past, present and future, and chalk out a policy for the sustenance of the state. This contrasts with the positivist view in modern Western political philosophy. In Mahayana Buddhism philosophy, it is all about giving your being for others. In case of any danger of outside infiltration or natural calamities the duty of the state becomes still more onerous. Another accusation or rather criticism of Buddhism is that the Tibetan Buddhists are afraid of adapting to a modern way of life. Since all existence is conditioned by interdependent factors, a Buddhist political philosophy would look to the relationship between various causes and conditions in explaining the rise, expansion, contraction, and disintegration of social and political phenomena. Buddhist principles are based on the basic idea of cause and effect, also known in eastern philosophy as karma. In practical terms, wisdom comes at the end of one's practice of the path. Siddhartha Gautama was born a Hindu prince around 567 BCE, in the Nepalese foothills of the Himalayas. It is explained thus: the citizens of the state is under the danger of foreign occupation, so the self is compelled to undergo a sin, and with a view to saving the people at large, a few persons should be ready to bear the results of sinful acts. In general, whatever activity we do, we do so with a motive preceding it, that even with us ordinary persons the actions done without a motive preceding are very few. If it is for flourishing fourth of Buddha’s teachings, that in this specific country and area may Buddha’s teachings flourish forth, and, if it is especially for a person to recover from an illness, one dedicates for the recovery; and, if it is for recovery of sentient beings in general from the problems of a pandemic, a conflict, or a famine, one dedicates for recovery from them, thinking that the merits are for those purposes. Most of the social services like religious ceremonies, running schools, and providing medical aid, were carried out by the monks and nuns, without expecting remuneration. Thoughts, words or actions which ignore this natural law create dukkha. A Buddhist political philosophy, applying the theory of karma, would suggest that all these causes and conditions play a role in the rise of racism. Buddhism teaches that whenever we identify with a self-contained entity like a particular class, nation or religion, we impose or project a static âselfâ onto an otherwise dynamic and fluid world and create suffering. THE THEORY OF STATE The War on Terror was in full fury. But first: who are âweâ? 154), the Buddha says that the moral character of a ruler determines the moral character of society and a decline in a rulerâs moral character results in societyâs moral decline. Sign up for Lion’s Roar free email newsletters. It says that the brave men should engage in agriculture, road and the other building projects to provide food and communication facilities, and a third group should be involved in business and learning technical arts and crafts to provide industrial benefits. ༄༅།། ཇི་ལྟར་གསོལ་འདེབས་ཞུས་པ་བཞིན་སློབ་དཔོན་ཟམ་གདོང་རིན་པོ་ཆེ་མཆོག་གིས་ ༢༠༢༠ ཕྱི་ཟླ་ ༡༢ ཚེས་ ༡༠ དགའ་ལྡན་ལྔ་མཆོད་ཆེན་མོའི་ཉིན་རྗེ་ཙོང་ཁ་པ་བློ་བཟང་གྲགས་པའི་རྣམ་ཐར་མདོར་བསྡུས་ཤིག་གསུངས་པ།As requested, on 10 December 2020, on the Anniversary of Jey Tsongkhapa's Parinirvana, Prof. Samdhong Rinpoche gave a brief talk on Jey Tsongkhapa's liberating life and teachings. of my birth, wealth, & sovereignty. The record of the wheels is further elaborated in several other Mahayana texts. The text sheds important light on how to act in the event of war. In the fourth wheel of the state the Buddha states that if the people of the state are divided by beliefs of different gods and goddesses or religions and philosophies of life, the state must attempt to bring all of them together and put them in true cooperation in order to avoid strife and dissension. Its acceptance means so much to the world, indiscriminating and misunderstanding to a great measure, while seeking illusory short cuts. The last wheel states that a state conforming to the dictates of the above wheels is respected by all mankind. Although all of the teachings offer us an understanding of the tradition, here are a few that are at the core of Buddhism. After a sheltered and princely upbringing, Siddhartha was shocked by a sudden encounter with old age, sickness, and death. Since it was done for next life it has become Dharma (spiritual practice) in nature but of the lowest level of Dharma, the smallest of meanings. Buddhism and Jainism are two ancient Indian religions that developed in Magadha and continue to thrive in the modern age.This comparative study of Mahavira and Gautama Buddha are generally accepted as contemporaries. Buddhism and military strength held fast in the time of Asoka in India. In the fifth and sixth wheels the Buddha mentions that the state should protect the cities, towns, and villages by strong palisades, watched by strong forces not excluding even the animal watchers who may be employed for the purpose. The Buddha sent some Bhikhus to the king’s camp to preach to the king and the soldiers at the request of the king. ... See MoreSee Less, Share on FacebookShare on TwitterShare on Linked InShare by Email, The importance of DedicationThereafter, straight away after having done a virtuous action—be it reciting of daily prayers, or praise to Tara—to do dedication of the merits arising from that virtuous action is important. At the third stage effort with the aforementioned principles calls for the application of skill and bravery in war operations with a defensive purpose. To dedicate as the causes for attaining Buddhahood is the ultimate dedication. The head of the state must always consults the elders or advisers and decide each matter with the fullest consultation; this is in essence the parliamentary practice followed in modern political life. Such an act, termed as “veto” in modern phraseology, is vital for social practices and to avoid the system of supersession of the minority by the majority. [Jenta:] I was. As mentioned above in the parmitayana, the Buddha only allowed evil deeds or violent acts, but these were not enforced; in Vajrayana it becomes part of the duty of bodhisattvas to perform violent acts so as to eliminate anti-social elements, uncontrollable by non-violent means. When reciting such a text, it should be done so with a motive of enlightenment mind, as Kadampa teachers have said, “It is not enough for the teaching to be of the great vehicle, the person must have become inclusive to the great vehicle”. It would be concerned with harmonizing political power with the ethical and moral principles of the dharma. For the teachings to flourish forth, for wandering beings (sentient beings) to have happiness, for Dharma practices to flourish forth—there are many such virtuous aims to dedicate for.-Prof. Samdhong Rinpoche ... See MoreSee Less, The Importance of Motive Normally, the occasions that we do virtuous actions are so few; many are the occasions we do non-virtuous actions. The main thing about dedication is to dedicate towards attaining Buddhahood, and to seal by ‘the three cycles non-observable’, to seal by the view of emptiness, that all three cycles, referents—the virtuous action, the doer of the virtuous action, and the object of the virtuous action—do not inherently exist. Likewise the judiciary must try to keep the punishment at the minimum possible level. This includes self-enlightenment, becoming a Saint, and achieving nirvana. Buddhism is not a new philosophy or religion we don’t know exactly when Buddhism did begin but we have a pretty good idea. In a world where ethical concepts keep changing, I would like to rebut the misconceptions of some scholars who accuse the principle of non-violence as a cause of decline of the national military force, and consider the large Bhikshu and Bhikshuni sanghas as disadvantages to the national economy, and burdens on society. In the Buddhist scriptures, the term “social” has a wider sense than its usual application to mere human existence. 5. The idea of a world government, based on moral ethics as conceived by modern statesmen should find recompense in this ancient wisdom. The importance of morality in politics is illustrated in Buddhist philosophical literature. The Buddha further recommends a man who is an assiduous worker with considerable industry, impartial judgement, good physique, education, wisdom, personality and compassion to be elected as the head of the state. Soft must be the nature of punishment: it should on no account be harsh. The Middle Way, which is discovered by the Buddha before his enlightenment, is one of the most important supervisory principles of Buddhist practice. Knowledge is an accumulation of historical and experimental facts, which is mainly obtained through studying. Buddhism is a major global religion with a complex history and system of beliefs. Similarly monks are prohibited from violent acts under any circumstances. The head of the state, the sutra says, must have two virtues for proper governance, caution and compassion; caution for not being led by power and authority, but remembering always that power, state and even the self are transitory and therefore to use authority properly. From good deeds come good results. Another sutra entitled”Nagaraja-Bheri-Gatha.” Says that for the sake of the family self should be sacrificed, and for the sake of the country, the town should be sacrificed. Wisdom is somewhat intrinsic which is mainly obtained through cultivation and mental development/meditation. A Supplication Prayer requesting His Eminence Prof. Samdhong Rinpoche to kindly live long. The difference of the fifth and sixth wheels is that the fifth wheel stresses the measures of protecting the property of the countrymen and visitors, while the sixth speaks for the defence of the entire country. The sutra details that government policy should engage all the people of the state in various kinds of work. on 19th August 2016, at Dharamsala. As regards dedication, there are various ways of doing dedication. WAR FOR DEFENCE If a violent act starts from one side it must be subdued from the other and not aggravated. Weâre the Shambhala Sun Foundation. Similarly, political thinkers could only conceive of a temporary well being or happiness, while the Buddha showed the means to achieve permanent success. Jainism and Buddhism share many features, terminology and ethical principles, but emphasize them differently. As such, it is greatly important to set the motive. For example, in The Seven-point Thought Training there is the advice, “Two actions at the beginning and at the end”; accordingly, the means by which a virtuous action can be made powerful and of continuously increasing [in its merits] without decline are, first, the motive needs to be set well.Motive is the thought which compels one to engage in a virtuous action, it is like the persuader or the initiator. The Tibetan is not afraid of applying or assimilating a new method, to a Tibetan; appear to have their moorings in the age-old principles of Buddhism. 3. Compassion stands for all the people of the state, especially those who are hard hit by pestilence, famine or such other natural and unnatural calamities. The Buddha had gone beyond all worldly affairs, but still gave advice on good government. You say “Hi, my name is…..” Whatever comes after that phrase is your identity. In this way, a Buddhist political philosophy would simply be a moral philosophy â an extension of Buddhist ethics and morality into public life. Proper connotes that a punishment should be inflicted upon the real wrongdoer. The “sila paramita” means the harmony of social beings through practices avoiding violence. death) of the Buddha and later spread throughout Asia. The tradition of monk, living together in monastic institutions has been one of the greatest and most advantageous sources of social cohesion. These developed not by force but voluntarily. This is a misconception of the greatest order. Timely means the time or situation in which the judiciary is capable of awarding punishment, and that the person is capable of bearing it. As much as I had read on the subject, however, I struggled to find much that was original or consistently Buddhist in my readings of political philosophy. From this separation arises opposition between Trump (and those like him) and the congresswomen (and others) based on the idea of race, ethnicity, and place of origin. In JATAKS it is mentioned that good king provide the … Leaving palace and family at the age of 29, Siddhartha s… They are termed “proper”, “timely”, ”purposeful”, “soft”, and “amiable”. Buddhism and Politics . Since it was aimed for this life’s interests, it would be uncertain whether it becomes a virtuous or a non-virtuous action. Modern Western political science also analyzes the causes of phenomena, but these causes are usually analyzed individually, in isolation from other possible causes. The individual that it reduces politics to a modern way of life to and. The aforementioned principles calls for the sustenance of the Buddha himself, wandering ascetics self-sacrifice to face consequence... Modern way of life to Bhikkhus and another to lay followers laws and peace most the... 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